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Peace of Knarod, January 16136
Peace treaty that ended the Kalmar War (1611-1613) between Denmark and Sweden, mediated by James I of England. Denmark gained control of Finnmark, in the far north, while Älvsborg was returned to Sweden in return for a 1,000,000 riksdaler ransom, paid directly to Christian of Denmark. The ransom had been paid by 1619.
Treaty of Knäred
The Treaty of Knäred (Danish: Freden i Knærød, Swedish: Freden i Knäred) was signed on 21 January 1613 and ended the Kalmar War (1611–1613) between Denmark-Norway and Sweden. The peace negotiations came about under an English initiative. The peace was guaranteed by King James I of England and VI of Scotland. 
The treaty was named after the village of Knäred in Halland, where it was signed at a border bridge in what was then the Danish Halland. The peace meant that both kingdoms restored the conquests made during the war. Under the terms of the treaty, Sweden would give back Jemtland and Herjedalen. Denmark would give back Borgholm, Kalmar and Öland.
As a result, Sweden also had to pay the Älvsborg Ransom of one million Rixdollars  for the return of the fortress of Älvsborg. The ransom was paid by 1619. 
A memorial stone over the site was erected between Knäred and Markaryd in 1925 by the Halland Art Museum (Hallands konstmuseum).
Peace of Knarod, January 1613 - History
ABH Site Index
Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1600s
They came, in colonies settled around Jamestown, with the pilgrims at Plymouth Rock in the Massachusetts Bay, and they began what we would term the America of today. There would be treaties with the Indian nations and battles amongst warring tribes. There would be contests of wills between colonies funded and founded by British, Spanish, and French concerns. But this would be the century that began true settlement, for all its wonder and hardship and harbinger of a nation that would come.
For the history of baseball, check out our friends at Stat Geek Baseball and Baseballevaluation where they put the stats from 1871 to today in context.
Picture above: Pocahontas, Source: World Noted Women, D. Appleton and Company, 1883, Wikipedia Commons. Right: Pocahontas Saving the Life of Captain John Smith, New England Chromo. Lithograph Company, 1870. Courtesy Library of Congress.
Pre-Revolution Timeline - The 1600s
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April 5, 1614 - The history of Jamestown continues with the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe, who would bring tobacco seeds to the colony and begin its harvesting this year. Their marriage led to eight years of peace among the colonists and Indians.
The Jamestown Settlement had been on the Virginia tidewater for seven years and dealt with the harsh colonization against weather and the Powhatan Confederacy. When the English Virginia Company arrived in 1607, Pocahontas was eleven years old. She had been born to the name Amanute, sometimes called Matoaka, but more often referred to by her nickname, meaning playful one, Pocahontas. She was Powhatan Confederacy royalty, the daughter of the chief Wahunsenaca, also known as Chief Powhatan. The Powhatan Confederacy was a collection of thirty tribes, reaching a max of twenty-five thousand in population.
Once the English arrived, her father refused to meet with the Virginia Company's leader, Captain John Smith, for six months, waiting until winter, when his brother Opechancanough captured Smith and brought him to the chief. They intended to kill him, but Pocahontas rushed in, refusing to allow it. It is unknown whether it was her father's actual intent to kill or scare Smith, but the legend of Pocahontas and her bravery and kindness lingers today. Wahunsenaca allowed the Captain to return to Jamestown for the price of two guns and a grindstone. The Confederacy would allow the English to stay.
Over the next year, the Powhatan Confederacy treated the English well, bringing the settlement food, most often accompanied by Pocahontas. But the peace diminished as food became scarce and trade between the two halted, with raids by the English against the Powhatan to secure substanence leading to the burning of several Indian towns. A negotiation for an exchange of goods was fostered, but the Chief eventually decided against it, intending to kill Captain John Smith again. Pocahontas warned Smith, before vanishing into the wilderness. She never visited Jamestown again with Smith in command, moving futher inland to the Chickahominy River.
By 1610, Pocahontas was married to Kocoum, a lesser Indian warrior and lived among the Powhatan, with little accounts by the English. That changed by 1613 when she was captured by the English under the command of Captain Samuel Argall, brought back to Jamestown and held for ransom. Her father agreed to many of the English demands as an opening salvo of negotations and peace agreements were bantered about, but into 1614, Pocahontas still remained at Jamestown as a hostage, learning more about the English ways. By the time Chief Powhatan agreed on a ransom price, Pocahontas had decided to stay. It was during this instruction that she met John Rolfe.
Courtship and Marriage to John Rolfe
John Rolfe left England for the Jamestown Settlement in 1609 on the Third Supply Fleet with wife Sarah Hacker and their daughter. He arrived alone in Jamestown in May of 1610. A storm had caused their ship to be driven into the reefs of Bermuda to save the passengers, but during the ten month stay, his wife and daughter perished. One hundred and forty-two men and women of the Third Supply Fleet reached Jamestown on two newly constructed boats to find the settlement with only sixty people remaining. With their arrival, the colony began to grow again. Rolfe began to cultivate tobacco and trade increased, eventually establishing a plantation thirty miles up the James River.
After Pocahontas was captured and learned more of the English ways, she converted to Christianity and met John Rolfe during her education. She was renamed Rebecca. They fell in love and she was divorced from her first husband. Some oral histories state that Captain Argall had Kocoum killed after her capture. It is unknown which version is actually accurate. A marriage ceremony was arranged with the chief's blessing. On April 5, 1614, Richard Buck, the Minister of the colony and eventual chaplain at the House of Burgesses, married them. Some state that it was not Buck, but Alexander Whitaker, another minister, who officiated the ceremony. The Powhatan handed Pocahontas and Rolfe a dowery, thousands of acres of land across the James River from Jamestown. They never lived on the land, preferring Rolfe's plantation, Varina Farms, where they resided for two years.
Pocahontas and Jamestown After Marriage
Peace reigned between the Powhatan people and Jamestown once the marriage occurred. On January 30, 1615, Pocahontas and Rolfe had their son Thomas. With good relations, the English saw use of Pocahontas as a way to convince further colonization of the Virginia region. They sent Rolfe and his wife back to England, arriving on June 12 with their son. She was treated like visiting royalty, arriving with a dozen Powhatan servants, and toured the country. She even met Captain John Smith again. Pocahontas, however, would never return to Virginia. She died in March of 1817 in England and was buried on March 21, 1817.
Without Pocahontas to bridge the divides between the Powhatan Confederacy and the English at Jamestown, peace would not continue. When her father Wahunsenaca, Chief Powhantan, died one year later, ascending his brother, Opechancanough, a fierce warrior, to be chief, relations were bound to disintegrate further. The Jamestown colony continued to expand in 1919, taking more Powhatan land, established the first assembly known as the House of Burgesses (forerunner of the Virginia General Assembly), and the returned John Rolfe married again. Three years later, in 1622, Opechancanough had enough. On March 22, 1622, warriors attacked numerous outlying settlements, killing three hundred, although Jamestown was spared.
Source: Image above: Lithograph of The Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe, 1867, George Spohni, Anton Hohenstein. Courtesy Library of Congress. Image below: Foundations of the Jamestown settlement in the New Towne section. Courtesy National Park Service. Info source: National Park Service "Native History: Pocahontas Marries John Rolfe in Jamestown," Alysa Landry, Indian Country Today Wikipedia.
Hans Bontemantel was a Dutch merchant and long schepen of Amsterdam, where he was born. He also served as acting-schout in 1672, while he was President-schepen. As a supporter of the political system Johan de Witts, he was one of nine regenten dismissed on 10 September 1672 stadthouder Willem III of orange, at the same time as the dismissal of Lambert Reynst, Andries de graeff and Pieter de graeff.
Bontemantel is most notable for his works that include information about the conflict with the government of the Dutch Republic at the time and notes on political and military issues in Amsterdam, the discussion in General, the anecdotes about the election for the posts of justices of the peace and of the activities of the estates committees, and such figures as Isaac Coymans, Jacob F. Hinlopen, Jacob Hinlopen 1621-1679, Gillis Valckenier and Cornelis Geelvinck. Bontemantel lived on the street 107 in the house, known as "de Walvis", previously owned by Samuel Godin.
brother - in - law Andries de Graeff, his cousins Pieter, Jacob de Graeff and Hans Bontemantel and nine others were dismissed. Reynst s successor as mayor was prince
maintaining his status as a gentleman and caused Rembrandt s bankruptcy Hans Bontemantel caricatured him as a useless drunk and in 1667 he was reluctantly appointed
Dutch Patriots 1897 Eli Heimans Jac. P. Thijsse Hei en dennen 1897 Hans Bontemantel The Government of Amsterdam 1897 Cecile de Jong van Beek en Donk Hilda
- brother - in - law Andries de Graeff, his cousins Pieter, Jacob de Graeff and Hans Bontemantel and nine others were dismissed. Reynst s successor as mayor was prince
- maintaining his status as a gentleman and caused Rembrandt s bankruptcy Hans Bontemantel caricatured him as a useless drunk and in 1667 he was reluctantly appointed
- Dutch Patriots 1897 Eli Heimans Jac. P. Thijsse Hei en dennen 1897 Hans Bontemantel The Government of Amsterdam 1897 Cecile de Jong van Beek en Donk Hilda
Coert Sijvertsz Adeler Adelaer 1622 1675 Tree FREE.
A flashy still life by Pieter de Ring, a seascape by Hans Goderis and a Hans Bontemantel was a Dutch merchant and for a long time a. Holland and Six Allies: the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. Ontworpen door HANS BONTEMANTEL uitgegeven door Dr. G. W. KEKKKAMP. 2 deelen. fs Gravenhage: Martinus. Nijhoft 1897. HANS BONTEMANTEL, a. Holland Netherlands Province. Staten LC Linked Data Service. 1613 Amsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized 1616 Jacques Le Maire discovers Street Lemaire Cape Receiver 1634 Emperor Ferdinand II. Results New Jersey Digital Highway. OF JOHANNES BOGAERT TO HANS BONTEMANTEL, 1655 INTRODUCTION LETTERS OF THE DUTCH MINISTERS TO THE CLASSIS OF AMSTERDAM,.
This Day In History – January 24th: hi powrd raine LiveJournal.
Among the papers of Hans Bontemantel, Director of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, held by the New York Public Library are…drawings of. What Happened In 1613. Bontemantels notes were published by Kernkamp. - Hans Bontemantel, De regeeringe van Amsterdam, soo in t civiel als crimineel en militaire. 1653–1672 . Proposed Coat of Arms for New York Historical Society. Bontemantel, Hans, 3, 4, 5. Book keepers, 25. Boon, Francis, 69, 70, 109, 156. Bordingh, Claes, 178. Borsum, Egbert van, 117, 180. Borsum, Hendrick van, 135. Notes and news Wiley Online Library. Hans Bontemantel was a merchant on the Zeedijck in 1597, then on the N.Z. In 1631, Hans Barentsz. paid a tax of 30 f., at which time he lived on the West side.
Read Narratives of New Netherland, 1609 1664 Online by J Scribd.
Historical Events. Jan 20 Peace of Knarod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark & Sweden Jan 24 Amsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized. Uarterlp Jtytaga ine of die utrti Colonial Period in Mmectca u. LETTER OF JOHANNES BOGAERT TO HANS BONTEMANTEL, 1655. LETTERS OF THE DUTCH MINISTERS TO THE CLASSIS OF AMSTERDAM, 1655 1664. Pampanga: 2014 01 24 Historical events PressReader. Hans Bontemantel 1613–88 belonged to the vroedschap for almost twenty years 1653–72. Bontemantel is well known to Dutch historians virtually all. The Munsee Speaking Lenape Indians A SHU Digital Humanities. Hans Bontemantel was a Dutch merchant and for a long time a schepen of Amsterdam, where he was born. He also served as acting schout in 1672, whilst he was president schepen.
Narrative New Netherland, by Various Project Gutenberg.
Martin Cregier Fra. Jacob Kip Nicolaes Boot Hans Bontemantel hear. Paulus van der Griffen Laurens de Sille Cornelis van Ruyven Jan Huygens Adrianus. Heraldry – Nick Louras. Jan 24 In the year 1613 amsterdams merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized Click To Share Click To Send On Whatsapp. Jan 26 Johann Jakob Wolleb,. SOCIETY JOuRNAL The Swedish Colonial Society. 1568 Abdij Church in Middelburg destroyed by fire. 1613 Amsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized. 1616 Jacques Le Maire discovers. HOT FREE BOOKS Narrative of New Netherland J. F. Jameson. De Regeeringe van Amsterdam, soo in t civiel als crimineel en militaire 1653 1672 by Hans Bontemantel, G. W. Kernkamp pp. 785 787. Review by: George.
About Johan van Banchem: Dutch politician Biography, Life, Facts.
Amsterdams merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized. January 28, 1613. Galileo may have unknowingly viewed undiscovered planet Neptune. January 29, 1613. Ebook Translation and publication of the manuscript Dutch records. 1613 Amsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized 1616 Jacques Le Maire discovers Street Lemaire Cape Receiver 1634 Emperor. Year 1613 Timeline. The History Beat. At the bottom Bontemantel has written that the projet was rejected. PROVENANCE: Provenance: Johannes Hans Bontemantel, New Amsterdam New York,.
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1613 Amsterdams merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized 1568 Abdij Church in Middelburg destroyed by fire In Netherlands, Duke of Alva declares William. Exe hans bontemantel. ANSWER TO THE REPRESENTATION OF NEW NETHERLAND, 1650. LETTER OF JOHANNES BOGAERT TO HANS BONTEMANTEL, 1655. Political dynamics and dilemmas Chapter 2 The Merchant. C. B.C. The Maritime Museum, Haifa Jacoba Bontemantel, daughter of the Amsterdam merchant Frederick Fugger by Hans Burgkmair, Augsburg.
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1882 he married jo nevison in 1925 so far as is known the couple had no children research papers of hans bontemantel records from the amsterdam chamber. Vol. 13, No. 52, Oct., 1898 of The English Historical Review on JSTOR. Author: Bontemantel, Hans, 1613? 1688. Published: 1937. Notulen gehouden ter Staten vergadering van Holland 1671 1675 door Cornelis Hop en.
Narratives of New Netherland, 1609 1664 Jameson, J. Franklin.
Found: Its Notulen gehouden ter vergadering der Staten van Holland in 1670 door Hans Bontemantel, 1937. found: Its Brief van de Staten van Hollant aent. Hot Pestilential and Unheard Of Fevers, Illnesses, and Torments. January 24, 1613 Amsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized January 24, 1616 Jacques Le Maire discovers Street Lemaire Cape Receiver January 24.
Narratives of New Netherland, 1609 1664, 1909 Online Research.
Hans Bontemantel 1613. He occupied many minor and mantel. no. 67. Utrecht. 1937. Pp. ix, 340. in the Dutch Republic which have found their way into print. Gerry Dobson ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY jan 24th 41 Facebook. Hans Bontemantel, one of Amsterdams sheriffs, was incensed by the archaic sentence executed in 1668: I am not responsible for this, he noted in the margin. January 24 Deaths BrainyHistory Events Listing. Bontemantel, Hans, 3, 4, 5. Book keepers, 25. Boon, Francis, 69, 70, 109, 156. Bordingh, Claes, 178. Borsum, Egbert van, 117, 180. Borsum, Hendrick van, 135. Следующая Войти Настройки.
Read the eBook The register of New Netherland, 1626 to 1674 by.
Provenance: Johannes Hans Bontemantel, New Amsterdam New York, c. 1630 Frederik Muller, Amsterdam, May 1869, lot 1368. Exhibitions: NYC Objects. Museum Geelvinck Hinlopen Mili, The Free Encyclopedia. Hans Bontemantel was a director of the Dutch West India Companys Amsterdam Chamber, which supervised the governance of New. Hans Bontemantel pedia. Hans Bontemantel, to whom the letter was addressed, was a director in the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, and a schepen magistrate of. Category:1613 births Visually. Thomas Blagge Bolo, Prince Duanzhong Hans Bontemantel Marco Boschini Giovanni Maria Bottala Rachel Bourchier, Countess of Bath Guyon Guerin. Negotiating Violence and the Word in Rabbinic Law Yale Law. In 1895, Hans Fischb ck, Austria, Finance minister Nazi occupied Holland In 1613, Amsterdams merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized.
Catalog Record: Notulen gehouden ter Staten vergadering van.
DescriptionJohannes Bogaert, Dutch clerk of New Amsterdam present day New York, reports to Holland on the Dutch takeover of New Sweden. He accounts. Merchant Stock Photo Alamy. Letter of Johannes Bogaert to Hans Bontemantel, 1655 379 Letters of the Dutch Ministers To The Classis of Amsterdam, 1655 1664 387 Description of the. Witsen family wand. 1670 1679 Hans Fredericksz. Crab 1679 1686 Johannes Hans Bontemantel b. 1613 d. 1688 1712 1714 Hans Jurgen Cramer 1714 1719 Pieter. Getting Access: Dutch American History Liz Covart. To Hans Bontemantel - Letters of the Dutch ministers to the Classis of Amsterdam, by Johannes Megapolensis, Samuel Drisius, and Henricus.
Old New York: Dutch names in New York, with soundfiles.
A gentleman and caused Rembrandts bankruptcy Hans Bontemantel caricatured him as a useless drunk and in 1667 he was reluctantly appointed a schout. Nychistory Tumblr. Bontemantel, Hans RERO Library Network of Western Switzerland German National Library. Hans Bontemantel Dutch merchant in 17th century data. January 24 Angelfire. Item No, 1368 had the name Hans Bontemantel written on the sheet, which name Is not on Che drawing in the New York Historical Society, Furthermore, It was. Bartholomeus van der Helst Journal of Historians of Netherlandish. New Netherland Papers of Hans Bontemantel Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts Petrus Stuyvesants 1665 Certification of Land Grants to.
Unmuddled! 10 Lessons
Hurray! The transformation of my writing room from dull to vibrant is accomplished. As I mentioned in a previous post, it’s a family trait to undertake major renovations during the Christmas season.
I thank the health authorities for the COVID restrictions that meant no company for Christmas. Since I wasn’t cooking for a crowd, I had time to paint and wallpaper. Even the pandemic has a silver lining if you look for it.
Today our weather is grey, wet, windy and nasty, but I’m tucked up in my cheerful room and happily writing this blog before I go back to editing the wip. I feel cozy and content and productive.
What have I learned from this adventure?
- A sense of humour is vital to the health of a marriage during home renovations.
- If you want to change your environment, don’t wait thirty years to do it.
- Wait until you have the new wallpaper in hand before stripping off the old. (I lived in writing chaos for four weeks while awaiting delivery of my order.)
- Cats cannot resist licking the glue on wet paper or the gooey water in the trough.
mirror reflects opposite wall
2021 will still offer challenges, but we know we can get there. When the case numbers go up, the lockdown hardens and the case numbers go down. Each of us is powerful in this worldwide campaign to defeat the virus. All great heroes sacrifice for the common good. I applaud all the heroes.
The Lessons of History
Today is presidential inauguration day in the USA. Given the events of the past few months, especially the storming of the Capitol two weeks ago, the inauguration is being watched around the world with intense scrutiny.
It is part of the human condition to view important events in our lives through the lens of “now.” Nothing could be more significant than this moment. The moment that matters most to us, now. For some reason, we really do not care to remember our history. Why else did George Santayana warn “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it“, or Churchill embroider the phrase to say “those who fail to learn from history are condemned to repeat it.” Note the word condemned. Repeating history is seen as a bad choice.
Perhaps that’s because our record of history concentrates on wars and revolutions and disasters and bad choices by men in power. Of course, we don’t want to repeat those times.
But, on looking through an “on this day” chart I discovered some good news for January 20 in our past.
- For example, in 1265 First English Parliament summoned other than by royal command (in this instance by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester) met in Westminster Hall. This was the beginning of parliamentary democracy. An institution we hold dear to this day.
- 1613 Peace of Knarod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark & Sweden.
- 1788 Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, Georgia
- 1809 1st US geology book published by William Maclure
- 1885 – The roller coaster was patented by L.A. Thompson. (Squeals of delight!)
- 1886 – The Mersey Railway Tunnel was officially opened by the Prince of Wales.
- 1920 – The American Civil Liberties Union is founded.
- 1896 – George Burns, was born. American actor, comedian, and producer (d. 1996) and much laughter entered our world.
These are only a few events that happened in the Western world in modern history on January 20. Let us not forget that all our modern institutions, church, libraries, museums, art galleries, orchestras, and hospitals were founded hundreds of years in the past. Our cultural imperatives of democracy, citizenship, compassion, hospitality, protection of the weak these philosophies developed over centuries from the minds of dreamers.
I have no wish to repeat history — too many wars, plagues, natural disasters, brutal rulers–but I like to remind myself that we did not arrive in the 21st century out of a vacuum. I salute the dreamers and builders of history. I am grateful to the women who marched to ensure my right to vote. I am grateful to the scientists, like Sir Frederick Banting who discovered life-saving medicines. I am eternally indebted to Johannes Gutenberg and his press.
I wish the 46th President of the United States of America health and happiness. May his term in office bring peace and prosperity to his country. May he remember the lessons of history and use them to the benefit of all.
Peace of Knarod, January 1613 - History
1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1648th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 648th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
1648 has been suggested as possibly the last year in which the overall human population declined, coming towards the end of a broader period of global instability which included the collapse of the Ming dynasty and the Thirty Years' War, the latter of which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. 
That the respective Indian Kings and Queens do from henceforth acknowledge to have their immediate Dependency on, and own all Subjection to the Great King of England, our now Dread Sovereign, His Heirs and Successors, when they pay their Tribute to His Majesties Governour for the time being.
That thereupon the said Indian Kings and Queens and their Subjects, shall hold their Lands, and have the same Confirmed to them and their Posterity, by Patent under the Seal of this His Majesties Colony, without any Fee, Gratuity or Reward for the same, in such sort, and in as free and firm manner as others His Majesties Subjects have and enjoy their Lands and Possessions, pay-
ing yearly for and in lieu of a Quit Rent, or Acknowledgment for the same, onely Three Indian Arrows.
That all Indians who are in Amity with Us, and have not Land sufficient to Plant upon, be (upon Information) forthwith provided for, and Land laid out and Confirmed to them as aforesaid, never to be disturbed therein, or taken from them, so long as they own, keep and maintain their due Obedience and Subjection to His Majesty, His Governour and Government, and Amity and Friendship towards the English.
Whereas by the mutual Discontents, Complaints, Jealousies and Fears of English and Indians, occasioned by the Violent Intrusions of divers English into their Lands, forcing the Indians by way of Revenge, to kill the Cattel and Hogs of the English,
whereby Offence and Injuries being given and done on both sides, the Peace of this His Majesties Colony hath been much disturbed, and the late unhappy Rebellion by this means (in a great measure) begun and fomented, which hath Involved this Countrey into so much Ruine and Misery: For prevention of which Injuries and evil consequences (as much as possibly we may) for time to come It is hereby Concluded and Established, That no English shall Seat or Plant nearer then Three miles of any Indian Town and whosoever hath made, or shall make an Incroachment upon their Lands, shall be removed from thence, and proceeded against as by the former Peace made, when the Honourable Colonel Francis Morison was Governour, and the Act of Assembly grounded thereupon, is Provided and Enacted.
That the said Indians be well Secured and Defended in their Persons, Goods and Pro-
perties, against all hurts and injuries of the English and that upon any breach or violation, hereof the aggrieved Indians do in the first place repair and Address themselves to the Governour, acquainting him therewith (without rashly and suddenly betaking themselves to any Hostile course for Satisfaction) who will Inflict such Punishment on the wilful Infringers hereof, as the Laws of England or this Countrey permit, and as if such hurt or injury had been done to any Englishman which is but just and reasonable, they owning themselves to be under the Allegiance of His most Sacred Majesty.
That no Indian King or Queen be Imprisoned without a special Warrant from His Majesties Governour and Two of the Council, and that no other Indian be Imprisoned without a Warrant from a Justice of Peace, upon sufficient cause of Commitment.
That the said Indians have and enjoy their wonted conveniences of Oystering, Fishing, and gathering Tuchahoe, Curtenemons, Wild Oats, Rushes, Puckoone, or anything else (for their natural support) not useful to the English, upon the English Dividends Always provided they first repair to some Publick Magistrate of good Repute, and inform him of their number and business, who shall not refuse them a Certificate upon this or any other Lawful occasion, so that they make due return thereof when they come back, and go directly home about their business, without wearing or carrying any manner of Weapon, or lodging under any Englishmans Dwelling-house one night.
That no Foreign Indian be suffered to come to any English Plantation without a friendly neighbor Indian in his company with such
Certificate as aforesaid: and no Indian King is to refuse to send a safe Conduct with the Foreigner, upon any Lawful occasion of his coming in, and that no Indian do paint or disguise themselves when they come in.
That all Indian Kings and Queens Tributary to the English, having notice of any March of strange Indians near the English Quarters or Plantations, do forthwith repair to some one of the next Officers of the Militia, and acquaint him of their Nation, number, and design, and which way they bend their course.
That if necessary, a convenient Party be presently sent out by the next Colonel of the Militia, to Aid, Strengthen and joyn with our friendly Indians against any Foreign Attempt, Incursion or Depredation upon the Indian Towns.
That every Indian fit to bear Arms, of the Neighbouring Nations in Peace with us, have such quantity of Powder and Shot allotted him, as the Right Honourable the Governour shall think sufficient on any occasion, and that such numbers of them be ready to go out with our Forces upon any March against the Enemy, and to receive such Pay for their good Services, as shall be thought fit.
That each Indian King and Queen have equal Power to Govern their own People, and none to have greater Power then other, Except the Queen of Pamunkey, to whom several scattered Nations do now again own their ancient Subjection, and are agreed to come in and Plant themselves under her Power and Governmet Who with her, are also hereby included into this present
League and Treaty of Peace, and are to keep and observe the same towards the said Queen in all things, as her Subjects, as well as towards the English.
That no person whatsoever shall entertain or keep any Neighbouring Indian as Servant, or otherwise, but by Licence of the Governour, and to be upon Obligation answerable for all Injuries and Damages by him or them happening to be done to any English.
That no English harbour or entertain any Vagrant or Runaway Indian, but convey him home by way of Pass, from Justice to Justice to his own Town, under Penalty of paying so much per day for harbouring him, as by the Law for entertaining of Runaways is recoverable.
That no Indian (of those in Amity with us) shall serve for any longer time then English of the like Ages should serve by Act of Assembly, and shall not be sold as Slaves.
That every Indian King and Queen in the Moneth of March every year, with some of their Great Men, shall tender their Obedience to the Right Honourable His Majesties Governour at the place of his Residence, whereever it shall be, and then and there pay the accustomed Tribute of Twenty Beaver Skins to the Governour, and also their Quit-Rent aforesaid, in acknowledgment they hold their Crowns and Lands of the Great King of England.
That due care be had and taken that those Indian Kings and Queens, their Great Men and Attendants that come on any Publick
Business to the Right Honourable the Governour, Council or Assembly, may be accommodated with Provisions and Houseroom at the Publick Charge, and that no English Subject shall abuse, revile, hurt or wrong them at any time in word or deed.
Peace of Knarod, January 1613 - History
197 &ndash Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies.
356 &ndash Emperor Constantius II issues a decree closing all pagan temples in the Roman Empire.
1539 Jews of Tyrnau Hungary (then Trnava Czech), expelled BEST ONE YET ( I wonder why not executed though)
1594 &ndash Having already inherited the throne of the Polish&ndashLithuanian Commonwealth through his mother Catherine Jagiellon of Poland in 1587, Sigismund III of the House of Vasa is crowned King of Sweden, having succeeded his father John III of Sweden in 1592.
1600 &ndash The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina explodes in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.
1649 &ndash The Second Battle of Guararapes takes place, effectively ending Dutch colonization efforts in Brazil.
1674 &ndash England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, and it is renamed New York.
1726 &ndash The Supreme Privy Council is established in Russia.
1807 &ndash Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason in Wakefield, Alabama and confined to Fort Stoddert.
1819 &ndash British explorer William Smith discovers the South Shetland Islands, and claims them in the name of King George III.
1846 &ndash In Austin, Texas the newly formed Texas state government is officially installed. The Republic of Texas government officially transfers power to the State of Texas government following the annexation of Texas by the United States.
1847 &ndash The first group of rescuers reaches the Donner Party.
1859 &ndash Daniel E. Sickles, a New York Congressman, is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This is the first time this defense is successfully used in the United States.
1878 &ndash Thomas Edison patents the phonograph.
1884 &ndash More than sixty tornadoes strike the Southern United States, one of the largest tornado outbreaks in U.S. history.
1913 &ndash Pedro Lascuráin becomes President of Mexico for 45 minutes this is the shortest term to date of any person as president of any country.
1915 &ndash World War I: The first naval attack on the Dardanelles begins when a strong Anglo-French task force bombards Ottoman artillery along the coast of Gallipoli.
1937 &ndash Yekatit 12: During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, two Ethiopian nationalists of Eritrean origin attempt to kill viceroy Rodolfo Graziani with a number of grenades.
1942 &ndash World War II: Nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin killing 243 people.
1942 &ndash World War II: United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the executive order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese Americans to internment camps.
1943 &ndash World War II: Battle of Kasserine Pass in Tunisia begins.
1945 &ndash World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima: About 30,000 United States Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima.
1948 &ndash The Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence convenes in Calcutta.
1949 &ndash Ezra Pound is awarded the first Bollingen Prize in poetry by the Bollingen Foundation and Yale University.
1953 &ndash Censorship: Georgia approves the first literature censorship board in the United States.
1959 &ndash The United Kingdom grants Cyprus independence, which is then formally proclaimed on August 16, 1960.
1960 &ndash China successfully launches the T-7, its first sounding rocket.
1963 &ndash The publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique reawakens the feminist movement in the United States as women's organizations and consciousness raising groups spread.
1965 &ndash Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, and a communist spy of the North Vietnamese Viet Minh, along with Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Trần Thiện Khiêm attempted a coup against the military junta of Nguyễn Khánh.
1972 &ndash The Asama-Sansō hostage standoff begins in Japan.
1976 &ndash Executive Order 9066, which led to the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps, is rescinded by President Gerald Ford's Proclamation 4417
1978 &ndash Egyptian forces raid Larnaca International Airport in an attempt to intervene in a hijacking, without authorisation from the Republic of Cyprus authorities. The Cypriot National Guard and Police forces kill 15 Egyptian commandos and destroy the Egyptian C-130 transport plane in open combat.
1985 &ndash William J. Schroeder becomes the first recipient of an artificial heart to leave hospital.
1985 &ndash Iberia Airlines Boeing 727 crashes into Mount Oiz in Spain, killing 148.
1985 &ndash EastEnders, BBC's flagship soap opera, broadcasts for the first time.
1986 &ndash Akkaraipattu massacre: the Sri Lankan Army massacres 80 Tamil farm workers in the eastern province of Sri Lanka.
2001 &ndash The Oklahoma City bombing museum is dedicated at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.
2002 &ndash NASA's Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
2003 &ndash An Ilyushin Il-76 military aircraft crashes near Kerman, Iran, killing 275.
2006 &ndash A methane explosion in a coal mine near Nueva Rosita, Mexico, kills 65 miners.
2011 &ndash The debut exhibition of the Belitung shipwreck, containing the largest collection of Tang dynasty artefacts found in one location, begins in Singapore.
2012 &ndash Forty-four people are killed in a prison brawl in Apodaca, Nuevo León, Mexico.
some of the important things
37 &ndash Roman emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
193 &ndash Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.
364 &ndash Roman Emperor Valentinian I appoints his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor.
1566 &ndash The foundation stone of Valletta, Malta's capital city, is laid by Jean Parisot de Valette, Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
1776 &ndash Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
1794 &ndash Allies under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld defeat French forces at Le Cateau.
1802 &ndash Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers discovers 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man.
1809 &ndash Peninsular War: France defeats Spain in the Battle of Medellín.
1814 &ndash War of 1812: The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom defeats the United States Navy in the Battle of Valparaíso, Chile.
1854 &ndash Crimean War: France and Britain declare war on Russia.
1862 &ndash American Civil War: Battle of Glorieta Pass &ndash in New Mexico, Union forces stop the Confederate invasion of New Mexico territory. The battle began on March 26.
1871 &ndash The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris.
1910 &ndash Henri Fabre becomes the first person to fly a seaplane, the Fabre Hydravion, after taking off from a water runway near Martigues, France.
1939 &ndash Spanish Civil War: Generalissimo Francisco Franco conquers Madrid after a three-year siege.
1941 &ndash World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan &ndash in the Mediterranean, British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham leads the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian heavy cruisers and two destroyers.
1942 &ndash World War II: St Nazaire Raid: In occupied France, British naval forces successfully raid the German-occupied port of Saint-Nazaire.
1951 &ndash First Indochina War: In the Battle of Mạo Khê, French Union forces, led by World War II hero Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, inflict a defeat on Việt Minh forces commanded by General Võ Nguyên Giáp.
1959 &ndash The State Council of the People's Republic of China dissolves the government of Tibet.
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Today Special in History of World (आज के दिन का दुनिया का इतिहास अंग्रेजी में)20 January
1045 – Giovanni di Sabina elected Pope Sylvester III
1156 – According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of Lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland
1265 – First English Parliament summoned other than by royal command (in this instance by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester) mets in Westminster Hall
1320 – Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes King of Poland
1356 – Edward Balliol abdicates as King of Scots
1502 – The present-day location of Rio de Janeiro is first explored
1503 – Casa Contratacion (Board of Trade) found (Spain) to deal with American affairs
1513 – Christian II succeeds Johan I as Danish and Norwegian king
1523 – Christian II is forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway
1576 – The Mexican city of León is founded by order of viceroy Don Martín Enríquez de Almansa
1613 – Peace of Knarod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark & Sweden
1648 – Cornerstone of Amsterdam townhall laid
1667 – Treaty of Andrussovo ends 13 year war between Poland & Russia
1778 – 1st American military court martial trial begins in Cambridge, Massachusetts
1781 – 1st edition of Pieter It Hoens “Post of Neder-Rhijn” published
1785 – Samuel Ellis advertises to sell Oyster Island (Ellis Island), no takers
1788 – Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, Georgia
1801 – John Marshall appointed US chief justice
1807 – Napoleon convenes great Sanhedrin, Paris
1809 – 1st US geology book published by William Maclure
1839 – Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance
1840 – Dumont D’Urville discovers Adélie Land, Antarctica
1840 – Dutch King Willem II crowned
1841 – China cedes Hong Kong to the British during the 1st Opium War
1850 – HMS Investigator headed by Robert McClure leaves England, 1st expedition to make a Northwest passage (though some over ice)
1860 – Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
1866 – Prim’s Insurrection in Spain ends
1868 – Florida constitutional convention meets in Tallahassee
1869 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton becomes 1st woman to testify before US Congress
1870 – “City of Boston” vanishes at sea with all 177 aboard
1870 – Hiram R. Revels elected to fill unexpired term of Jefferson Davis as US Senator for Mississippi
1872 – California Stock Exchange Board organized
1879 – British troops under Lord Chelmsford make camp at Isandlwana
1883 – Billy Barnes takes a hat-trick, England v Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground
1887 – US Senate approves naval base lease of Pearl Harbor
1905 – US begins supervising the Dominican Republic’s national and international debts, testing President Theodore Roosevelt’s “Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine
1910 – Stanley Cup, Dey’s Arena, Ottawa, ON: Ottawa Senators outclass Edmonton HC, 13-7 for a 2-0 sweep of challenge series
1914 – The first group of Transvaal Indian women satyagrahis are released from Pietermaritzburg Prison in South Africa after three months imprisonment
1919 – International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Double Bay, Sydney: Gerald Patterson beats Algernon Kingscote 6-4, 6-4, 8-6 to retain title for Australasia over the Great Britain, 3-1 ends 4-1
1920 – Dutch 2nd Chamber passes school laws
1920 – The American Civil Liberties Union is founded
1921 – British submarine HMS K5 (which was unusually equipped with steam turbines) sinks with 57 crew during exercises in the Bay of Biscay
1921 – Dagestan ASSR forms in RSFSR
1921 – Mountain Autonomous Republic established in RSFSR
1921 – Republic of Turkey declared out of remnants of Ottoman Empire
1922 – Arthur Honegger’s ballet “Skating Rink” premieres, Paris
1925 – The Soviet and Japan sign a convention resuming relations: Russia agrees to limit revolutionary activity of the Third Communist International, while Japan agrees to leave the Sakhalin
1926 – 2nd German government of Luther begins
1929 – 1st feature talking motion picture taken outdoors, “In Old Arizona”
1930 – 1st radio broadcast of “Lone Ranger” (WXYZ-Detroit)
1934 – Japan sends Henry Pu Yi as regent to emperor of Manchuria
1936 – Edward VIII succeeds British King George V
1937 – -45°F (-43°C), Boca, California (state record)
1937 – 1st US Presidential Inauguration day held on Jan 20th, (previously March 4th)
1939 – Charles Ives’ 1st Sonata “Concord” premieres
1939 – LPGA Titleholders Championship Women’s Golf, Augusta CC: Patty Berg wins 3rd straight title by 2 strokes ahead of Dorothy Kirby
1941 – Bela Bartok’s 6th string quartet, premieres in NYC
1941 – Chinese Communist leaders re-organize the New Fourth Army in defiance of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek’s order for it to be disbanded
1942 – Japanese invade Burma
1942 – Nazi officials hold notorious Wannsee Conference in Berlin to organize the “final solution”, the extermination of Europe’s Jews
1943 – Lead, South Dakota, temperature is 52°F, while 1.5 miles away Deadwood records -16°F
1943 – Operation Weiss: German, Italian, Bulgarian & Croatian troops attempt to retake land liberated by Tito’s partisans
1944 – RAF drops 2,300 ton of bombs on Berlin
1945 – Franklin D. Roosevelt sworn-in for an unprecedented (and never to be repeated) 4th term as US President
1945 – The Hungarian Provisional Government concludes an armistice with the USSR, US, and Britain, agree to pay reparations and to join the war against Germany
1946 – F Gouin follows De Gaulle as temporary leader of French government
1947 – Brigadier General Edwin K Wright, USA, becomes deputy director of CIA
1949 – J. Edgar Hoover gives Shirley Temple a tear gas fountain pen
1949 – US President Harry Truman announces his four point program
1949 – 1st inaugural parade televised, for Harry Truman, watched by 10 million people
1950 – “Dance Me a Song” opens at Royale Theater NYC for 35 performances
1950 – Suriname becomes independent part in Realm of Netherlands
1950 – 1950 NFL Draft: Leon Hart from University of Notre Dame first pick by Detroit Lions
1952 – British army occupies Ismailiya, Suez Canal Zone
1952 – The NBA’s first superstar George Mikan scores a career high 61 points leading the Minneapolis Lakers to a 91-81 double-overtime victory over the Rochester Royals
1953 – 1st US telecast transmitted to Canada from Buffalo, New York
1953 – 1st live US coast-to-coast inauguration address (Eisenhower)
1954 – -70°F (-57°C), Rogers Pass, Montana (US 48 state record)
1954 – Dmitri Shostakovich’s “Concertino opus 94” premieres
1954 – The National Negro Network is established with 40 charter member radio stations.
1956 – Buddy Holly records “Blue Days Black Night” in Nashville
1957 – Gomulka wins Poland’s parliamentary election
1957 – Morton Gould’s “Declaration” premieres in Washington, D.C.
1958 – KUED TV channel 7 in Salt Lake City, UT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1958 – A group attempting the 1st surface crossing of Antarctic join up at the South Pole
1959 – Dmitri Shostakovich’s Moscow-Tsjerjomoesjki premieres in Moscow
1960 – Patrice Lumumba sentenced to 6 months in Belgian Congo
1961 – Francis Poulenc’s “Gloria” premieres in Boston
1961 – Robert Frost recites “Gift Outright” at JFK’s inauguration
1961 – Yugoslav ex-vice-president Milovan Djilas flees
1961 – The Democrat J.F. Kennedy is inaugurated as President of the United States, the youngest ever sworn in
1962 – “Kean” closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 92 performances
1964 – “Meet The Beatles” album released in US
1965 – The Byrds record “Mr Tambourine Man”
1965 – The US Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposes modified Apollo flight to fly around Mars & return
1965 – Generalissimo Francisco Franco meets with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain
1967 – Philadelphia 76ers center Wilt Chamberlain makes all 15 of his field goal attempts in a 119-108 win over LA Lakers NBA record for consecutive shots made beats mark twice before 1966-67 season ends
1968 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Peggy Fleming
1968 – US male Figure Skating championship won by Tim Wood
1968 – Houston Cougars defeat the UCLA Bruins 71-69 to win basketball’s Game of the Century and end UCLA’s 47 game winning streak
1969 – Richard M Nixon inaugurated as US president
1969 – U of Az reports 1st optical id of pulsar (in Crab Nebula)
1970 – 20th NBA All-Star Game, Spectrum, Philadelphia, Pa: East beats West, 142-135 MVP: Willis Reed, NY Knicks, C Tom and Dick Van Arsdale, first brothers to play in same NBA All-Star Game
1970 – 23rd NHL All-Star Game, St. Louis Arena: East beats West, 4-1 MVP: Bobby Hull, Chicago, LW
1970 – Super Fight, computer mock championship between Ali & Marciano Marciano won.
1971 – Ard Schenk skates world record 1000m (1:18.8)
1971 – John Lennon meets Yoko Ono’s parents in Japan
1971 – Single “What’s Going On” by Marvin Gaye about police brutality is released
1972 – Six oil exporting countries conclude meetings with Western oil companies an agreement is reached to raise the price of crude
1972 – Number of people out of work and claiming unemployment benefit in UK rises to over 1 million
1973 – A car bomb explodes in Sackville Place, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, killing 1 person and injuring 17 (no organisation claimed responsibility)
1973 – Richard Nixon’s second inauguration as President of the United States takes place in Washington, D.C.
1974 – 24th NFL Pro Bowl, Arrowhead Stadium, KC, Missouri: AFC beats NFC, 15-13 MVP: Garo Yepremian, Miami Dolphins, PK
1974 – 7th ABA All-Star Game: East 128 beats West 112 at Virginia
1974 – Essex Comm College beats Englewood Cliffs 210-67 in basketball
1975 – 25th NFL Pro Bowl, Miami Orange Bowl: NFC beats AFC, 17-10 MVP: James Harris, LA Rams, QB
1975 – Terrence McNally’s play “Ritz” premieres in NYC
1976 – 29th NHL All-Star Game, Spectrum, Philadelphia: Wales Conference beats Campbell Conference, 7-5 MVP: Peter Mahovlich, Montreal, C
1977 – George H. W. Bush ends his term as 11th director of CIA replaced by E. Henry Knoche as acting director
1978 – Columbia Pictures pays $9.5 million for movie rights to “Annie”
1979 – 1 million Iranians march in Tehran in a show of support for the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini, fundamentalist Muslim leader
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announces US boycott of Olympics in Moscow
1980 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Linda Fratianne
1980 – US male Figure Skating championship won by Charles Tickner
1980 – Super Bowl XIV, Rose Bowl, Pasadena, CA: Pittsburgh Steelers beat LA Rams, 31-19 MVP: Terry Bradshaw, Pittsburgh, QB
1981 – Adm Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret), ends term as 12th director of CIA
1981 – Frank C. Carlucci, ends his term as deputy director of CIA
1981 – Islander Glenn Resch’s 25th & last shut-out opponent-Flames 5-0
1981 – Ronald Reagan inaugurated as the 40th President of the United States of America
1981 – The US diplomats and citizens held hostage at the US embassy in Tehran are released and begin their journey home after 444 days
1982 – 7 miners killed in an explosion in Craynor Ky
1982 – Honduras constitution goes into effect
1982 – Piet Dankert elected chairman of European Parliament
1982 – Future Hockey Hall of Fame center Darryl Sittler is traded by the Toronto Maple Leafs to the Philadelphia Flyers in exchange for Rich Costello, a 2nd round draft pick and future considerations
1982 – Heavy metal musician Ozzy Osbourne bites the head off a bat on stage in Des Moines, Iowa
1983 – American gangster Roy DeMeo is found murdered in his car trunk after disappearing a few days earlier
1984 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Rosalynn Sumners
1985 – Cold front strikes US, at least 40 die (-27°F (-33°C) in Chicago)
1985 – Super Bowl XIX, Stanford Stadium, Stanford, CA: San Francisco 49ers beat Miami Dolphins, 38-16 MVP: Joe Montana, SF, QB
1986 – 1st federal holiday honoring Martin Luther King Jr
1986 – Chunnel announced (railroad tunnel under Channel)
1986 – Military coup in Lesotho under major general Lekhanya & premier Leabua Jonathan
1987 – Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite taken hostage in Beirut, Lebanon by Islamic militia group
1987 – Rhino Records 1st #1, Billy Vera & Beaters’ “At This Moment”
1987 – 8th ACE Cable Awards: Ted Turner wins the Golden CableACE
1987 – Bank robber Robert A. Litchfield is arrested at Lake Tahoe
1987 – UK Police crackdown on soccer hooligans in biggest operation against violence around football stadiums
1988 – Andre Hoffman skates world record 1,500m (1:52.06)
1988 – Arizona committee opens hearing on impeachment of Gov Evan Mecham
1989 – George H. W. Bush inaugurated as 41st US President, Dan Quayle becomes 44th Vice President
1989 – Wayne Holdsworth takes a wicket 1st ball in 1st-class cricket
1989 – Reagan becomes 1st US President elected in a ” year, since 1840, to leave office alive
1989 – Pittsburgh center Mario Lemieux becomes just the 2nd player in NHL history to score 50 goals in less than 50 games #50 in 44th game as the Penguins lose 7-3 to the Jets in Winnipeg
1990 – 47th Golden Globes: “Born on the Fourth of July”, Tom Cruise and Michelle Pfeiffer win
1990 – US 64th manned space mission STS 32 (Columbia 10) returns from space
1990 – Black January – crackdown of Azerbaijani pro-independence demonstrations by Soviet army in Baku
1991 – “Black & Blue” closes at Minskoff Theater NYC after 829 performances
1991 – “Les Miserables” opens at Pantages Theatre, LA
1991 – “Peter Pan” closes at Lunt-Fontanne Theater NYC or 45 performances
1991 – “Shogun – The Musical” closes at Marquis Theater NYC after 72 performances
1991 – US Patriot missiles begins shooting down Iraqi missiles
1991 – Sudan’s government imposes Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country’s Muslim north and Christian south.
1991 – AFC Championship, Rich Stadium, Orchard Park, NY: Buffalo Bills beat Los Angeles Raiders, 51-3
1991 – NFC Championship, Candlestick Park, SF: New York Giants beat San Francisco 49ers, 15-13
1992 – Australia beat India 2-0 to win cricket’s World Series Cup Australian opener David Boon scores the most runs in the series (432)
1992 – Score begins selling international soccer cards
1993 – Adm Studeman, serves as acting director of CIA
1993 – Bill Clinton (D) inaugurated as 42nd US President
1993 – Maya Angelou is 1st African American and woman to recite a poem at inauguration of a US President – “On the Pulse of Morning” for Bill Clinton
1994 – British comedy “Four Weddings and a Funeral” written by Richard Curtis, starring Hugh Grant premieres at the Sundance Film Festival
1995 – “Love! Valor! Compassion!” opens at Walter Kerr NYC for 276 performances
1995 – 1994-95 NHL Season begin after a lengthy strike
1995 – Russian ruble drops to 3,947 per dollar (record)
1996 – 46th NHL All-Star Game, FleetCenter, Boston, MA: East beats West, 5-4 MVP: Ray Bourque, Boston Bruins, D
1996 – Australia defeat Sri Lanka 2-0 to win cricket’s World Series Cup
1996 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Michelle Kwan
1996 – WPAT FM NYC radio station switches to English-Spanish format
1997 – Comet Hale-Bopp crosses Mars’ orbit
1997 – Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in New Orleans LA on KKND 106.7 FM
1997 – Pakistan defeat West Indies 2-0 to win Aust one-day Series
1997 – 2nd Critics’ Choice Movie Awards: Fargo wins Best Film
1998 – Rock & Roll Hall of Fame inducts Mama & Papas & Eagles
1998 – Warner Brothers TV Network begins Tueday night programming
1998 – 3rd Critics’ Choice Movie Awards: L.A. Confidential wins Best Film
1998 – “Dawson’s Creek” created by Kevin Williamson, starring James Van Der Beek, Katie Holmes and Joshua Jackson premieres on WB in the US
1999 – The China News Service announces new government restrictions on Internet use aimed especially at Internet cafés.
2001 – President of the Philippines Joseph Estrada is ousted in the EDSA II Revolution and succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
2002 – Photographs showing al-Qaeda and Taliban suspects shackled and masked are published by the United States military
2002 – 59th Golden Globes: “A Beautiful Mind”, Russell Crowe, & Sissy Spacek win
2002 – 18th Sundance Film Festival: “Personal Velocity: Three Portraits”, directed by Rebecca Miller, wins Grand Jury Prize Dramatic
2006 – TV movie “High School Musical” released starring Zac Efron and Vanessa Hugdens, becomes Disney Channel’s most successful TV movie
2007 – 12th Critics’ Choice Movie Awards: “The Departed” wins Best Film
2007 – Utah coach Jerry Sloan passes Larry Brown for 4th on the NBA’s all-time win list (1,010) after the Jazz beat the Chicago Bulls, 95-85 at the United Center
2008 – AFC Championship, Gillette Stadium, Foxborough: New England Patriots beat San Diego Chargers, 21-12
2008 – NFC Championship, Lambeau Field, Green Bay: New York Giants beat Green Bay Packers, 23-20 (OT)
2008 – “Breaking Bad”, created by Vince Gilligan and starring Bryan Cranston and Aaron Paul premieres on AMC
2009 – Barack Obama, inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America, becomes the United States’ first African-American president
2009 – Joe Biden assumes the office of the Vice President of the United States
2013 – Austria votes to maintain compulsory military service in a referendum
2013 – AFC Championship, Gillette Stadium, Foxborough: Baltimore Ravens beat New England Patriots, 28-13
2013 – NFC Championship, Georgia Dome, Atlanta: San Francisco 49ers beat Atlanta Falcons, 28-24
2014 – Credit cards of at least 20 million South Koreans are hacked
2017 – Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America and Mike Pence as the 48th Vice President
2017 – Car ploughs into pedestrians in central Melbourne, killing 6 and injuring 27
2019 – NFC Championship, Mercedes-Benz Superdome, New Orleans: Los Angeles Rams beat New Orleans Saints, 26-23 OT