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Msoura

Msoura


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Missouri

Origin of name: Named after the Missouri Indian tribe. ??Missouri? means ??town of the large canoes.?

10 largest cities (2012): Kansas City, 464,310 St. Louis, 318,172 Springfield, 162,191 Independence, 117,270 Columbia, 113,225 Lee's Summit, 92,468 O'Fallon, 81,979 St. Joseph, 77,176 St. Charles, 66,463 St. Peter's, 54,078

Geographic center: In Miller Co., 20 mi. SW of Jefferson City

Number of counties: 114, plus 1 independent city

Largest county by population and area: St. Louis, 991,830 (2008) Texas, 1,179 sq mi.

Conservation areas 1 : leased, 315 (197, 661 ac.) owned, 775 (770,574 ac.)

State parks and historic sites: 81

2010 resident census population (rank): 5,988,927 (18). Male: 2,933,477 Female: 3,055,450. White: 4,958,770 (86.54%) Black: 693,391(12.04%) American Indian: 27,376 (1.03%) Asian: 98,083 (1.61%) Other race: 80,457 Two or more races: 124,589 Hispanic/Latino: 212,470. 2010 population 18 and over: 4,563,491 65 and over: 838,294 median age: 37.6.

Hernando de Soto visited the Missouri area in 1541. France's claim to the entire region was based on Sieur de la Salle's travels in 1682. French fur traders established Ste. Genevieve in 1735, and St. Louis was first settled in 1764.

The U.S. gained Missouri from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, and the territory was admitted as a state following the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Throughout the pre??Civil War period and during the war, Missourians were sharply divided in their opinions about slavery and in their allegiances, supplying both Union and Confederate forces with troops. However, the state itself remained in the Union.

Historically, Missouri played a leading role as a gateway to the West, St. Joseph being the eastern starting point of the Pony Express, while the much-traveled Santa Fe and Oregon trails began in Independence.

Missouri's economy is highly diversified. Service industries provide more income and jobs than any other segment, and include a growing tourism and travel sector. Wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, and agriculture also play significant roles in the state's economy.

Missouri is a leading producer of transportation equipment (including automobile manufacturing and auto parts), beer and beverages, and defense and aerospace technology. Food processing is the state's fastest-growing industry.

Missouri mines produce 90% of the nation's principal (non-recycled) lead supply. Other natural resources include iron ore, zinc, barite, limestone, and timber.

The state's top agricultural products include grain, sorghum, hay, corn, soybeans, and rice. Missouri also ranks high among the states in cattle and calves, hogs, and turkeys and broilers. A vibrant wine industry also contributes to the economy.

Tourism draws hundreds of thousands of visitors to a number of Missouri points of interest: the country-music shows of Branson Bass Pro Shops national headquarters (Springfield) the Gateway Arch at the Jefferson National Expansion (St. Louis) Mark Twain's boyhood home (Hannibal) the Harry S. Truman home and library (Independence) the scenic beauty of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways and the Pony Express and Jesse James museums (St. Joseph). The state's different lake regions also attract fishermen and sun-seekers from throughout the Midwest.


Cuba, Missouri

President Harry S. Truman visited Cuba during a tour of U.S. Route 66. He surveyed the property that would eventually become Indian Hills Lake. Indian Hills Lake was originally known as "Indian Head Lake" because the skull of a Native American was found during excavation.

Bette Davis and Amelia Earhart also visited the town. Their visits are commemorated in the Viva Cuba Mural Project. [9]

Cuba was designated as the Route 66 Mural City by the Missouri legislature in recognition of Viva Cuba's Outdoor Mural Project. [10] The beautification group consulted with Michelle Loughery, a Canadian muralist who helped create the vision and two of the murals. The group commissioned twelve outdoor murals along the Route 66 corridor. [10] Interstate 44 now runs through Cuba.

Cuba was also the site of the first Adopt a Highway program in Missouri. [10]

Cuba is located on Missouri Route 19 approximately seven miles northeast of Steelville. I-44 passes the north side of the town. [15]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.20 square miles (8.29 km 2 ), all land. [16]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880374
1890497 32.9%
1900552 11.1%
1910619 12.1%
1920704 13.7%
1930814 15.6%
19401,033 26.9%
19501,301 25.9%
19601,672 28.5%
19702,070 23.8%
19802,120 2.4%
19902,537 19.7%
20003,230 27.3%
20103,356 3.9%
2019 (est.)3,292 [4] −1.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [17]

2010 census Edit

As of the census [3] of 2010, there were 3,356 people, 1,385 households, and 816 families living in the city. The population density was 1,048.8 inhabitants per square mile (404.9/km 2 ). There were 1,542 housing units at an average density of 481.9 per square mile (186.1/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 95.95% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 1.49% from other races, and 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.40% of the population.

There were 1,385 households, of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.1% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.03.

The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 26.1% of residents were under the age of 18 9.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24 24.2% were from 25 to 44 23.3% were from 45 to 64 and 16.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.7% male and 53.3% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [5] of 2000, there were 3,230 people, 1,295 households, and 831 families living in the city. The population density was 1,095.4 people per square mile (422.7/km 2 ). There were 1,414 housing units at an average density of 479.5 per square mile (185.1/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 97.68% White, 0.50% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.28% from other races, and 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population.

There were 1,295 households, out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 27.2% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,127, and the median income for a family was $30,069. Males had a median income of $24,348 versus $17,958 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,665. About 16.3% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over.

The Wagon Wheel Motel is a historic landmark and has been a presence on Route 66 since the 1930s. [18] The guest cottages and old Wagon Wheel Cafe building underwent renovations beginning in 2009.

Cuba is home to the Crawford County History Museum. [19] The Veterans Memorial, with almost 1000 names of veterans, sits in front of the museum on Smith Street.

Four miles west of Cuba on Route 66 is the World's Largest Rocking Chair (former). [20] The chair is 42' high and draws many Route 66 travelers to take photos. It is located next to the reopened Fanning 66 Outpost (under new management).

The Crawford County R-II school district in 2000 had 1,426 students. The high school had 451 students, the middle school had 454, and the elementary school had 521. Renovation of the elementary and middle school facilities and the construction of a new high school, all of which cost more than $4 million, was recently completed. The school district has received full accreditation of the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges.

The Holy Cross Catholic School teaches grades PK through 8. In 2000 it had 54 students.

Cuba has a public library, a branch of the Crawford County Library District. [21]


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Contents

The Iowa class of fast battleships was designed in the late 1930s in response to the US Navy's expectations for a future war with the Empire of Japan. American officers preferred comparatively slow but heavily armed and armored battleships, but Navy planners determined that such a fleet would have difficulty in bringing the faster Japanese fleet to battle, particularly the Kongō-class battlecruisers and the aircraft carriers of the 1st Air Fleet. Design studies prepared during the development of the earlier North Carolina and South Dakota classes demonstrated the difficulty in resolving the desires of fleet officers with those of the planning staff in the displacement limits imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty system, which had governed capital ship construction since 1923. An escalator clause in the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936 allowed an increase from 35,000 long tons (36,000 t) to 45,000 long tons (46,000 t) in the event that any member nation refused to sign the treaty, which Japan refused to do. [2] The last battleships to be built by the United States, they were also the US Navy's largest and fastest vessels of the type. [3]

Missouri was 887 feet 3 inches (270.4 m) long overall and had a beam of 108 ft 2 in (33 m) and a draft of 36 ft 2.25 in (11 m). Her standard displacement amounted to 48,110 long tons (48,880 t) and increased to 57,540 long tons (58,460 t) at full combat load. The ship was powered by four General Electric steam turbines, each driving one screw propeller, using steam provided by eight oil-fired Babcock & Wilcox boilers. Rated at 212,000 shaft horsepower (158,000 kW), the turbines were intended to give a top speed of 32.5 knots (60.2 km/h 37.4 mph). The ship had a cruising range of 15,000 nautical miles (28,000 km 17,000 mi) at a speed of 15 knots (28 km/h 17 mph). Her crew numbered 117 officers and 1,804 enlisted men. [3] [4]

The ship was armed with a main battery of nine 16 in (406 mm) /50 caliber Mark 7 guns [a] in three triple-gun turrets on the centerline, two of which were placed in a superfiring pair forward, with the third aft. The secondary battery consisted of twenty 5 in (127 mm) /38 caliber dual purpose guns mounted in twin turrets clustered amidships, five turrets on either side. As designed, the ship was equipped with an anti-aircraft battery of eighty 40 mm (1.6 in) guns and forty-nine 20 mm (0.79 in) auto-cannon. [3] [4]

The main armor belt was 12.1 in (307 mm) thick, while the main armor deck was 6 in (152 mm) thick. The main battery gun turrets had 19.7 in (500 mm) thick faces, and they were mounted atop barbettes that were protected with 11.3 in (290 mm) of steel. The conning tower had 17.5 in (444 mm) thick sides. [3] Beginning with Missouri, the frontal bulkhead armor was increased from the original 11.3 in (287 mm) to 14.5 in (368 mm) in order to better protect against fire from frontal sectors. [5]

Construction Edit

The keel for Missouri was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on 6 January 1941 on slipway 1, under the direction of Rear Admiral Clark H. Woodward The ship was launched on 29 January 1944 before a crowd of 20,000 to 30,000 spectators. At the launching ceremony, the ship was christened by Margaret Truman, the daughter of Harry S. Truman, then one of the senators from the ship's namesake state Truman himself gave a speech at the ceremony. Fitting-out work proceeded quickly, and the ship was commissioned on 11 June Captain William Callaghan served as her first commander. [3] [6]

Missouri conducted her initial sea trials off New York, beginning on 10 July, and then steamed south to Chesapeake Bay, where she embarked on a shakedown cruise and conducted combat training. During this period, she operated with the new large cruiser Alaska, which had also recently entered service, and several escorting destroyers. The ship got underway on 11 November, bound for the West Coast of the United States. She passed through the Panama Canal on 18 November and continued on to San Francisco. There, additional fitting-out work was carried out to prepare the vessel for use as a fleet flagship. [7]

World War II (1944–1945) Edit

On 14 December, Missouri departed San Francisco and sailed for Ulithi in the Caroline Islands, where she joined the rest of the fleet on 13 January 1945. She became a temporary headquarters ship for Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher. [8] She then joined the Fast Carrier Task Force, Task Force 58, which sortied on 27 January to launch an air attack on Tokyo in support of the planned operation against Iwo Jima. Missouri served as part of the anti-aircraft screen for Task Group 58.2, centered on the carriers Lexington, Hancock, and San Jacinto, during the raid on Tokyo. [9] In addition to guarding the carriers, Missouri and the other battleships acted as oilers for the escorting destroyers, since the fleet's logistics train could not accompany the strike force during raids. [10]

By 16 February, the task force had arrived off the coast of Japan to begin a series of air strikes. The fleet then proceeded to Iwo Jima, which was invaded by American ground forces on 19 February. That evening, while patrolling with the carriers, Missouri shot down a Japanese aircraft, probably a Nakajima Ki-49 bomber. Task Force 58 departed in early March and returned to Ulithi to replenish fuel and ammunition. Missouri was transferred to the Yorktown task group, TG 58.4 at that time. [11]

The ships departed again on 14 March for another round of air strikes on Japan. [12] Four days later, Missouri ' s anti-aircraft guns assisted in the destruction of four Japanese aircraft. American carrier aircraft struck a variety of targets around the Inland Sea, which prompted a Japanese counter-attack that struck several carriers. The carrier Franklin was badly damaged and Missouri ' s task group was detached to cover her withdrawal. By 22 March, Franklin had left the area of operations and Missouri ' s group returned to the fleet to join the preparatory bombardment for the upcoming invasion of Okinawa. [8] Missouri was temporarily transferred to TF 59, along with her sister ships New Jersey and Wisconsin to bombard the southern coast of Okinawa on 24 March, [13] part of an effort to draw Japanese attention from the actual invasion target on the western side of the island. American ground forces went ashore on 1 April. [8] Missouri thereafter returned to TG 58.4. [14]

While operating with the carriers on 11 April, Missouri came under attack from a kamikaze that struck the side of the vessel below the main deck. The impact shattered the aircraft, throwing gasoline on the deck that rapidly ignited, though Missouri ' s crew quickly suppressed it. The attack caused superficial damage and the ship remained on station. Six days later, Missouri detected a Japanese submarine about 12 nmi (22 km 14 mi) from the task group. The light aircraft carrier Bataan and four destroyers were detached, resulting in the sinking of the submarine I-56. Missouri left Task Force 58 on 5 May to return to Ulithi in the course of her operations off Okinawa, she claimed five aircraft shot down and another probable kill, along with partial credit for another six aircraft destroyed. [8] While en route, Missouri refueled from a fleet oiler that also brought the ship's new commander, Captain Stuart S. Murray, who came aboard and relieved Callaghan. [15]

On 9 May, Missouri reached Ulithi, before continuing on to Apra Harbor, Guam, where she arrived nine days later. Admiral William F. Halsey Jr., the commander of Third Fleet, came aboard the ship that day, making her the fleet flagship of what was now re-designated as TF 38. On 21 May, Missouri got underway again, bound for Okinawa. She had reached the operational area by 27 May, when she took part in attacks on Japanese positions on the island. She and the rest of Third Fleet then steamed north to conduct a series of air strikes on Japanese airfields and other installations on the island of Kyūshū on 2 and 3 June. The fleet was struck by a major typhoon on the night of 5–6 June, which caused extensive damage to many ships of the fleet, though Missouri suffered only minor damage. Another round of air strikes against targets on Kyūshū took place on 8 June. The fleet then withdrew to Leyte Gulf to replenish fuel and ammunition, arriving there on 13 June. [8] [16]

Third Fleet got underway again on 1 July to launch another series of attacks on the Japanese Home Islands. During this period, Missouri operated with TG 38.4. The carrier aircraft struck targets around Tokyo on 10 July, and then further north between Honshū and Hokkaidō from 13 to 14 July. The following day, Missouri and several other vessels were detached to form TG 38.4.2 bombard industrial facilities in Muroran, Hokkaido. A second bombardment mission followed on the night of 17/18 July, by which time the British battleship HMS King George V had joined the formation. [17] She then returned to cover the carriers during strikes against targets around the Inland Sea and then Tokyo later in the month. After a brief pause, the carriers resumed attacks on northern Japan on 9 August, the same day as the atomic bombing of Nagasaki. The following day, rumors circulated that Japan would surrender, which was formally announced on the morning of 15 August. The next day, Admiral Sir Bruce Fraser of the Royal Navy, the Commander of the British Pacific Fleet, came aboard Missouri to confer the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire on Halsey for his role in the war. [8]

Signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender Edit

Over the course of the following two weeks, Allied forces made preparations to begin the occupation of Japan. On 21 August, Missouri sent a contingent of 200 officers and men to her sister ship Iowa, which was to debark a landing party in Tokyo to begin the process of demilitarizing Japan. Two days later, Murray was informed that Missouri would host the surrender ceremony, with the date scheduled for 31 August. The ship's crew immediately began preparations for the event, including cleaning and painting the vessel. Missouri began the approach to Tokyo Bay on 27 August, guided by the Japanese destroyer Hatsuzakura. That night, the ships stopped at Kamakura, where a courier brought the flag that Commodore Matthew Perry had flown during his expedition to open Japan in 1853 the flag was to be displayed during the surrender ceremony. The flotilla then entered Tokyo Bay on 29 August, and Missouri was anchored close to where Perry had anchored his own vessels some ninety-two years earlier. Poor weather delayed the ceremony until 2 September. [18]

Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz boarded shortly after 0800, and General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allies, came on board at 0843. The Japanese representatives, headed by Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu, arrived at 0856. At 0902, General MacArthur stepped before a battery of microphones and opened the 23-minute surrender ceremony to the waiting world by stating, [19] "It is my earnest hope—indeed the hope of all mankind—that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage of the past, a world founded upon faith and understanding, a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish for freedom, tolerance, and justice." [20]

Another U.S. flag was raised and flown during the occasion, a flag that some sources have indicated was in fact that flag which had flown over the U.S. Capitol on 7 December 1941. This is not true it was a flag taken from the ship's stock, according to Missouri ' s commanding officer, Captain Stuart "Sunshine" Murray, and it was ". just a plain ordinary GI-issue flag". [21]

By 09:30 the Japanese emissaries had departed. In the afternoon of 5 September, Admiral Halsey transferred his flag to the battleship South Dakota, and early the next day Missouri departed Tokyo Bay. As part of the ongoing Operation Magic Carpet she received homeward bound passengers at Guam, then sailed unescorted for Hawaii. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 20 September and flew Admiral Nimitz's flag on the afternoon of 28 September for a reception. [19]

Post-war (1946–1950) Edit

The next day, Missouri departed Pearl Harbor bound for the eastern seaboard of the United States. She reached New York City on 23 October and hoisted the flag of Atlantic Fleet commander Admiral Jonas Ingram. Four days later, Missouri boomed out a 21-gun salute as President Truman boarded for Navy Day ceremonies. [19]

After an overhaul in the New York Naval Shipyard and a training cruise to Cuba, Missouri returned to New York. During the afternoon of 21 March 1946, she received the remains of the Turkish Ambassador to the United States, Münir Ertegun. She departed on 22 March for Gibraltar, and on 5 April anchored in the Bosphorus off Istanbul. She rendered full honors, including the firing of 19-gun salutes during the transfer of the remains of the late ambassador and again during the funeral ashore. [19]

Missouri departed Istanbul on 9 April and entered Phaleron Bay, Piraeus, Greece, the following day for an overwhelming welcome by Greek government officials and anti-communist citizens. Greece had become the scene of a civil war between the communist World War II resistance movement and the returning Greek government-in-exile. The United States saw this as an important test case for its new doctrine of containment of the Soviet Union. The Soviets were also pushing for concessions in the Dodecanese to be included in the peace treaty with Italy and for access through the Dardanelles strait between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The voyage of Missouri to the eastern Mediterranean symbolized America's strategic commitment to the region. News media proclaimed her a symbol of U.S. interest in preserving both nations' independence. [19]

Missouri departed Piraeus on 26 April, touching at Algiers and Tangiers before arriving at Norfolk on 9 May. She departed for Culebra Island on 12 May to join Admiral Mitscher's 8th Fleet in the Navy's first large-scale postwar Atlantic training maneuvers. The battleship returned to New York City on 27 May, and spent the next year steaming Atlantic coastal waters north to the Davis Strait and south to the Caribbean on various Atlantic command training exercises. [19] On 13 December, during a target practice exercise in the North Atlantic, a star shell accidentally struck the battleship, but without causing injuries. [22]

Missouri arrived at Rio de Janeiro on 30 August 1947 for the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Hemisphere Peace and Security. President Truman boarded on 2 September to celebrate the signing of the Rio Treaty, which broadened the Monroe Doctrine by stipulating that an attack on any one of the signatory American countries would be considered an attack on all. [19]

The Truman family boarded Missouri on 7 September 1947 to return to the United States and disembarked at Norfolk on 19 September. Her overhaul in New York—which lasted from 23 September to 10 March 1948—was followed by refresher training at Guantanamo Bay. The summer of 1948 was devoted to midshipman and reserve training cruises. Also in 1948, Missouri became the first battleship to host a helicopter detachment, operating two Sikorsky HO3S-1 machines for utility and rescue work. [23] The battleship departed Norfolk on 1 November 1948 for a second three-week Arctic cold-weather training cruise to the Davis Strait. During the next two years, Missouri participated in Atlantic command exercises from the New England coast to the Caribbean, alternated with two midshipman summer training cruises. She was overhauled at Norfolk Naval Shipyard from 23 September 1949 to 17 January 1950. [19]

Throughout the latter half of the 1940s, the various service branches of the United States had been reducing their inventories from their World War II levels. For the Navy, this resulted in several vessels of various types being decommissioned and either sold for scrap or placed in one of the various United States Navy reserve fleets scattered along the East and West Coast of the United States. As part of this contraction, three of the Iowa-class battleships had been de-activated and decommissioned however, President Truman refused to allow Missouri to be decommissioned. Against the advice of Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson, Secretary of the Navy John L. Sullivan, and Chief of Naval Operations Louis E. Denfeld, Truman ordered Missouri to be maintained with the active fleet partly because of his fondness for the battleship and partly because the battleship had been christened by his daughter Margaret Truman. [24] [25]

Then the only U.S. battleship in commission, Missouri was proceeding seaward on a training mission from Hampton Roads early on 17 January 1950 when she ran aground 1.6 mi (2.6 km) from Thimble Shoal Light, near Old Point Comfort. She hit shoal water a distance of three ship-lengths from the main channel. Lifted some 7 feet (2.1 m) above waterline, she stuck hard and fast. [19] With the aid of tugboats, pontoons, and a rising tide, she was refloated on 1 February 1950 and repaired. [19]

Korean War (1950–1953) Edit

In 1950, the Korean War broke out, prompting the United States to intervene in the name of the United Nations. President Truman was caught off guard when the invasion struck, but quickly ordered U.S. forces stationed in Japan into South Korea. Truman also sent U.S.-based troops, tanks, fighter and bomber aircraft, and a strong naval force to Korea to support the Republic of Korea. As part of the naval mobilization Missouri was called up from the Atlantic Fleet and dispatched from Norfolk on 19 August to support UN forces on the Korean peninsula. [19]

Missouri arrived just west of Kyūshū on 14 September, where she became the flagship of Rear Admiral Allan Edward Smith. The first American battleship to reach Korean waters, she bombarded Samchok on 15 September 1950 in an attempt to divert troops and attention from the Incheon landings. This was the first time since World War II that Missouri had fired her guns in anger, and in company with the cruiser Helena and two destroyers, she helped prepare the way for the U.S. Eighth Army offensive. [19]

Missouri arrived at Incheon on 19 September, and on 10 October became flagship of Rear Admiral John M. Higgins, commander, Cruiser Division 5 (CruDiv 5). She arrived at Sasebo on 14 October, where she became flagship of Vice Admiral A. D. Struble, Commander, 7th Fleet. After screening the aircraft carrier Valley Forge along the east coast of Korea, she conducted bombardment missions from 12 to 26 October in the Chongjin and Tanchon areas, and at Wonsan where she again screened carriers eastward of Wonsan. [19]

MacArthur's amphibious landings at Incheon had severed the North Korean Army's supply lines as a result, North Korea's army had begun a lengthy retreat from South Korea into North Korea. This retreat was closely monitored by the People's Republic of China (PRC), out of fear that the UN offensive against Korea would create a US-backed enemy on China's border, and out of concern that the UN offensive in Korea could evolve into a UN war against China. The latter of these two threats had already manifested itself during the Korea War: U.S. F-86 Sabres on patrol in "MiG Alley" frequently crossed into China while pursuing Communist MiGs operating out of Chinese airbases. [26]

Moreover, there was talk among the U.N. commanders—notably MacArthur—about a potential campaign against the People's Republic of China. In an effort to dissuade UN forces from completely overrunning North Korea, the People's Republic of China issued diplomatic warnings that they would use force to protect North Korea, but these warnings were not taken seriously for a number of reasons, among them the fact that China lacked air cover to conduct such an attack. [27] [28] This changed abruptly on 19 October 1950, when the first of an eventual total of 380,000 People's Liberation Army soldiers under the command of General Peng Dehuai crossed into North Korea, launching a full-scale assault against advancing U.N. troops. The PRC offensive caught the UN completely by surprise UN forces realized they would have to fall back, and quickly executed an emergency retreat. UN assets were shuffled in order to cover this retreat, and as part of the force tasked with covering the UN retreat Missouri was moved into Hungnam on 23 December to provide gunfire support about the Hungnam defense perimeter until the last UN troops, the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division, were evacuated by way of the sea on 24 December 1950. [19]

Missouri conducted additional operations with carriers and shore bombardments off the east coast of Korea until 19 March 1951. She arrived at Yokosuka on 24 March, and 4 days later was relieved of duty in the Far East. She departed Yokosuka on 28 March, and upon arrival at Norfolk on 27 April became the flagship of Rear Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr., commander, Cruiser Force, Atlantic Fleet. During the summer of 1951, she engaged in two midshipman training cruises to northern Europe. Under the command of Captain John Sylvester, Missouri entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard 18 October 1951 for an overhaul, which lasted until 30 January 1952. [19]

Following winter and spring training out of Guantanamo Bay, Missouri visited New York, then set course from Norfolk on 9 June 1952 for another midshipman cruise. She returned to Norfolk on 4 August and entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard to prepare for a second tour in the Korean combat zone. [19]

Missouri stood out of Hampton Roads on 11 September 1952 and arrived at Yokosuka on 17 October. Vice Admiral Joseph J. Clark, commander of the 7th Fleet, brought his staff onboard on 19 October. Her primary mission was to provide seagoing artillery support by bombarding enemy targets in the Chaho-Tanchon area, at Chongjin, in the Tanchon-Sonjin area, and at Chaho, Wonsan, Hamhung, and Hungnam during the period 25 October through 2 January 1953. [19]

Missouri put into Incheon on 5 January 1953 and sailed thence to Sasebo, Japan. General Mark W. Clark, Commander in Chief, U.N. Command, and Admiral Sir Guy Russell, Royal Navy Commander-in-Chief, Far East Fleet, visited the battleship on 23 January. In the following weeks, Missouri resumed "Cobra" patrol along the east coast of Korea to support troops ashore. Repeated bombardment of Wonsan, Tanehon, Hungnam, and Kojo destroyed main supply routes along the eastern seaboard of Korea. [19]

The last bombardment mission by Missouri was against the Kojo area on 25 March. On 26 March, her commanding officer—Captain Warner R. Edsall—suffered a fatal heart attack while conning her through the submarine net at Sasebo. She was relieved as the 7th Fleet flagship on 6 April by her older sister New Jersey. [19]

Missouri departed Yokosuka on 7 April and arrived at Norfolk on 4 May to become flagship for Rear Admiral E. T. Woolridge, commander, Battleships-Cruisers, Atlantic Fleet, on 14 May. She departed on 8 June on a midshipman training cruise, returned to Norfolk on 4 August, and was overhauled in Norfolk Naval Shipyard from 20 November 1953 to 2 April 1954. As the flagship of Rear Admiral R. E. Kirby, who had relieved Admiral Woolridge, Missouri departed Norfolk on 7 June as flagship of the midshipman training cruise to Lisbon and Cherbourg. During this voyage Missouri was joined by the other three battleships of her class, New Jersey, Wisconsin, and Iowa, the only time the four ships sailed together. [29] She returned to Norfolk on 3 August and departed on 23 August for inactivation on the West Coast. After calls at Long Beach and San Francisco, Missouri arrived in Seattle on 15 September. Three days later she entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard where she was decommissioned on 26 February 1955, entering the Bremerton group, Pacific Reserve Fleet. [19] [30]

Deactivation Edit

Reactivation (1984–1990) Edit

Under the Reagan Administration's program to build a 600-ship Navy, led by Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman, Missouri was reactivated and towed by the salvage ship Beaufort to the Long Beach Naval Yard in the summer of 1984 to undergo modernization in advance of her scheduled recommissioning. [19] [31] In preparation for the move, a skeleton crew of 20 spent three weeks working 12- to 16-hour days preparing the battleship for her tow. [32] During the modernization Missouri had her obsolete armament removed: 20 mm and 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, and four of her ten 5-inch (127 mm) gun mounts. [33]

Over the next several months, the ship was upgraded with the most advanced weaponry available among the new weapons systems installed were four Mk 141 quad cell launchers for 16 RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles, eight Mk 143 Armored Box Launcher mounts for 32 BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles, and a quartet of Phalanx Close In Weapon System rotary cannon for defense against enemy anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft. [33] Also included in her modernization were upgrades to radar and fire control systems for her guns and missiles, and improved electronic warfare capabilities. [33] During the modernization Missouri ' s 800 lb (360 kg) bell, which had been removed from the battleship and sent to Jefferson City, Missouri for sesquicentennial celebrations in the state, was formally returned to the battleship in advance of her recommissioning. [34] Missouri was formally recommissioned in San Francisco on 10 May 1986. "This is a day to celebrate the rebirth of American sea power," Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger told an audience of 10,000 at the recommissioning ceremony, instructing the crew to "listen for the footsteps of those who have gone before you. They speak to you of honor and the importance of duty. They remind you of your own traditions." [35] Also present at the recommissioning ceremony was Missouri governor John Ashcroft, U.S. Senator Pete Wilson, Secretary of the Navy John Lehman, and San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein. Margaret Truman gave a short speech especially aimed at the ship's crew, which ended with "now take care of my baby." Her remarks were met with rounds of applause from the crew. [36]

Four months later Missouri departed from her new home port of Long Beach for an around-the-world cruise, visiting Pearl Harbor Hawaii Sydney, Hobart, and Perth, Australia Diego Garcia the Suez Canal Istanbul, Turkey Naples, Italy Rota, Spain Lisbon, Portugal and the Panama Canal. Missouri became the first American battleship to circumnavigate the globe since Theodore Roosevelt's "Great White Fleet" 80 years before—a fleet which included the first battleship named USS Missouri (BB-11) . [19]

In 1987, Missouri was outfitted with 40 mm grenade launchers and 25 mm chain guns and sent to take part in Operation Earnest Will, the escorting of reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers in the Persian Gulf. [37] These smaller-caliber weapons were installed due to the threat of Iranian-manned, Swedish-made Boghammar cigarette boats operating in the Persian Gulf at the time. [38] On 25 July, the ship departed on a six-month deployment to the Indian Ocean and North Arabian Sea. She spent more than 100 continuous days at sea in a hot, tense environment. As the centerpiece for Battlegroup Echo, Missouri escorted tanker convoys through the Strait of Hormuz, keeping her fire control system trained on land-based Iranian Silkworm missile launchers. [39]

Missouri returned to the United States via Diego Garcia, Australia, and Hawaii in early 1988. Several months later, Missouri ' s crew again headed for Hawaiian waters for the Rim of the Pacific (RimPac) exercises, which involved more than 50,000 troops and ships from the navies of Australia, Canada, Japan, and the United States. Port visits in 1988 included Vancouver and Victoria in Canada, San Diego, Seattle, and Bremerton. [19]

In the early months of 1989, Missouri was in the Long Beach Naval Shipyard for routine maintenance. On 1 July 1989, while berthed at Pier D, the music video for Cher's "If I Could Turn Back Time" was filmed aboard Missouri and featured the ship's crew. A few months later she departed for Pacific Exercise (PacEx) '89, where she and New Jersey performed a simultaneous gunfire demonstration for the aircraft carriers Enterprise and Nimitz. The highlight of PacEx was a port visit in Pusan, Republic of Korea. In 1990, Missouri again took part in the RimPac Exercise with ships from Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, and the U.S. [19]

Gulf War (January–February 1991) Edit

On 2 August 1990 Iraq, led by President Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait. In the middle of the month U.S. President George H. W. Bush, in keeping with the Carter Doctrine, sent the first of several hundred thousand troops, along with a strong force of naval support, to Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf area to support a multinational force in a standoff with Iraq.

Missouri ' s scheduled four-month Western Pacific port-to-port cruise set to begin in September was canceled just a few days before the ship was to leave. She had been placed on hold in anticipation of being mobilized as forces continued to mass in the Middle East. Missouri departed on 13 November 1990 for the troubled waters of the Persian Gulf. She departed from Pier 6 at Long Beach, with extensive press coverage, and headed for Hawaii and the Philippines for more work-ups en route to the Persian Gulf. Along the way she made stops at Subic Bay and Pattaya Beach, Thailand, before transiting the Strait of Hormuz on 3 January 1991. During subsequent operations leading up to Operation Desert Storm, Missouri prepared to launch Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAMs) and provide naval gunfire support as required. [19]

Missouri fired her first Tomahawk missile at Iraqi targets at 01:40 am on 17 January 1991, followed by 27 additional missiles over the next five days. [19]

On 29 January, the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate Curts led Missouri northward, using advanced mine-avoidance sonar. In her first naval gunfire support action of Desert Storm she shelled an Iraqi command and control bunker near the Saudi border, the first time her 16 in (406 mm) guns had been fired in combat since March 1953 off Korea. [40] The battleship bombarded Iraqi beach defenses in occupied Kuwait on the night of 3 February, firing 112 16 in (406 mm) rounds over the next three days until relieved by Wisconsin. Missouri then fired another 60 rounds off Khafji on 11–12 February before steaming north to Faylaka Island. After minesweepers cleared a lane through Iraqi defenses, Missouri fired 133 rounds during four shore bombardment missions as part of the amphibious landing feint against the Kuwaiti shore line the morning of 23 February. [19] The heavy pounding attracted Iraqi attention in response to the battleship's artillery strike, the Iraqis fired two HY-2 Silkworm missiles at the battleship, one of which missed. [19] The other missile was intercepted by a GWS-30 Sea Dart missile launched from the British air defence destroyer HMS Gloucester [19] within 90 seconds and crashed into the sea roughly 700 yd (640 m) in front of Missouri. [41]

During the campaign, Missouri was involved in a friendly fire incident with the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate Jarrett. According to the official report, on 25 February, Jarrett ' s Phalanx CIWS engaged the chaff fired by Missouri as a countermeasure against enemy missiles, and stray rounds from the firing struck Missouri, one penetrating through a bulkhead and becoming embedded in an interior passageway of the ship. Another round struck the ship on the forward funnel, passing completely through it. One sailor aboard Missouri was struck in the neck by flying shrapnel and suffered minor injuries. Those familiar with the incident are skeptical of this account, however, as Jarrett was reportedly over 2 mi (3.2 km) away at the time and the characteristics of chaff are such that a Phalanx would not normally regard it as a threat and engage it. [42] There is no dispute that the rounds that struck Missouri did come from Jarrett, and that it was an accident. There was suspicion that a Phalanx operator on Jarrett may have accidentally fired off a few rounds manually, but there is no evidence supporting this theory. [43] [44]

During the operation, Missouri also assisted coalition forces engaged in clearing Iraqi naval mines in the Persian Gulf. By the time the war ended, Missouri had destroyed at least 15 naval mines. [41]

With combat operations out of range of the battleship's weapons on 26 February, Missouri had fired a total 783 rounds of 16 in (406 mm) shells and launched 28 Tomahawk cruise missiles during the campaign, [45] and commenced to conduct patrol and armistice enforcement operations in the northern Persian Gulf until sailing for home on 21 March. Following stops at Fremantle and Hobart, Australia, the warship visited Pearl Harbor before arriving home in April. She spent the remainder of the year conducting type training and other local operations, the latter including 7 December "voyage of remembrance" to mark the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941. During that ceremony, Missouri hosted President Bush, the first such presidential visit for the warship since Harry S. Truman's in September 1947. [19]

With the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s and the absence of a perceived threat to the United States came drastic cuts in the defense budget, and the high cost of maintaining and operating battleships as part of the United States Navy's active fleet became uneconomical as a result, Missouri was decommissioned on 31 March 1992 at Long Beach after 16 total years of active service. [47] Her last commanding officer, Captain Albert L. Kaiss, wrote in the ship's final Plan of the Day:

Our final day has arrived. Today the final chapter in battleship Missouri ' s history will be written. It's often said that the crew makes the command. There is no truer statement . for it's the crew of this great ship that made this a great command. You are a special breed of sailors and Marines and I am proud to have served with each and every one of you. To you who have made the painful journey of putting this great lady to sleep, I thank you. For you have had the toughest job. To put away a ship that has become as much a part of you as you are to her is a sad ending to a great tour. But take solace in this—you have lived up to the history of the ship and those who sailed her before us. We took her to war, performed magnificently and added another chapter in her history, standing side by side our forerunners in true naval tradition. God bless you all.

Missouri returned to be part of the United States Navy reserve fleet at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, until 12 January 1995, when she was struck from the Naval Vessel Register. She remained in Bremerton, but was not open to tourists as she had been from 1957 to 1984. In spite of attempts by citizens' groups to keep her in Bremerton and be re-opened as a tourist site, the U.S. Navy wanted to pair a symbol of the end of World War II with one representing (for the United States) its beginning. [48] On 4 May 1998, Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton signed the donation contract that transferred her to the nonprofit USS Missouri Memorial Association (MMA) of Honolulu, Hawaii. She was towed from Bremerton on 23 May to Astoria, Oregon, where she sat in fresh water at the mouth of the Columbia River to kill and drop the saltwater barnacles and sea grasses that had grown on her hull in Bremerton, [41] then towed across the eastern Pacific, and docked at Ford Island, Pearl Harbor on 22 June, just 500 yd (460 m) from the Arizona Memorial. [35] Less than a year later, on 29 January 1999, Missouri was opened as a museum operated by the MMA.

Originally, the decision to move Missouri to Pearl Harbor was met with some resistance. The National Park Service expressed concern that the battleship, whose name has become synonymous with the end of World War II, would overshadow the battleship Arizona, whose dramatic explosion and subsequent sinking on 7 December 1941 has since become synonymous with the attack on Pearl Harbor. [49] To help guard against this impression Missouri was placed well back from and facing the Arizona Memorial, so that those participating in military ceremonies on Missouri ' s aft decks would not have sight of the Arizona Memorial. The decision to have Missouri ' s bow face the Arizona Memorial was intended to convey that Missouri watches over the remains of Arizona so that those interred within Arizona ' s hull may rest in peace. [50]

A gun from Missouri is paired with a gun formerly on Arizona at the Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza just east of the Arizona State Capitol complex in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. It is part of a memorial representing the start and end of the Pacific War for the United States. [51]

Missouri was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on 14 May 1971 for hosting the signing of the instrument of Japanese surrender that ended World War II. [49] She is not eligible for designation as a National Historic Landmark because she was extensively modernized in the years following the surrender. [50]

On 14 October 2009, Missouri was moved from her berthing station on Battleship Row to a drydock at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard to undergo a three-month overhaul. The work, priced at $18 million, included installing a new anti-corrosion system, repainting the hull, and upgrading the internal mechanisms. Drydock workers reported that the ship was leaking at some points on the starboard side. [52] The repairs were completed the first week of January 2010 and the ship was returned to her berthing station on Battleship Row on 7 January 2010. The ship's grand reopening occurred on 30 January. [53]

Missouri was central to the plot of the film Under Siege, although many scenes were shot aboard the similar but older battleship USS Alabama. The ship was also prominently featured in another movie, Battleship. As Missouri has not moved under her own power since 1992, shots of the ship at sea were obtained with the help of three tugboats. [54] The music video for Cher's "If I Could Turn Back Time" was also filmed aboard Missouri. The U.S. Navy, which had granted permission to shoot the video there, was unhappy with the sexual nature of the performance. [55]

Missouri received three battle stars for her service in World War II, five for her service during the Korean War, and three for her service during the Gulf War. [50] Missouri also received numerous awards for her service in World War II, Korea, and the Persian Gulf. [56] The ship has also received a number of awards for her role as museum ship:


Missouri 2021 Bicentennial

August 10, 2021, will mark the two hundredth anniversary of Missouri’s entry as the 24th state to enter the United States. A state with many different regional cultures, geographies, and industries, each Missouri community, county, and region has a story to tell about its people, their history, their commerce, and their culture. By celebrating the accomplishments and diversity of all these regions, we help create a better understanding of our one Missouri and the ties that bind us together.

A successful commemoration of Missouri’s two hundredth year will engage all 114 counties and the City of St. Louis in a meaningful look at the Show-Me State’s past, present, and future. Missourians will reflect on the events that have shaped their communities, counties, regions, and the entire State, while starting a new chapter in its’ unique history.

While a time of celebration, it is also a time to reflect and to build a strong future for the State, setting the course for Missouri’s next 200 years.


Relief

The part of Missouri that lies north of the Missouri River was once glaciated. In this area the land is characterized by gently rolling hills, fertile plains, and well-watered prairie country. South of the Missouri, a large portion of the state lies in the Ozark Mountains. Except in the extreme southeastern corner of Missouri—including the southern extension, commonly called the “Bootheel”—and along the western boundary, the land in this region is rough and hilly, with some deep, narrow valleys and clear, swift streams. It is an area abounding with caves and extraordinarily large natural springs. Much of the land is 1,000 to 1,400 feet (300 to 425 metres) above sea level, although near the western border the elevations rarely rise above 800 feet (250 metres). About 90 miles (145 km) south of St. Louis is Taum Sauk Mountain with an elevation of 1,772 feet (540 metres), it is the highest point in the state. In far southeastern Missouri lies a part of the alluvial plain of the Mississippi River, where elevations are less than 500 feet (150 metres). On the southwestern edge of this region is the state’s lowest point, where the St. Francis River flows from the Missouri Bootheel into Arkansas at an elevation of about 230 feet (70 metres).

The St. Francois Mountains in the eastern Ozarks exhibit igneous granite and rhyolite outcroppings, while the rest of the state is underlain by sedimentary rocks—mainly limestones, dolomites, sandstone, and shale. Missouri is tectonically stable except for the southeastern portion, where small earth tremors occur. The possibility of another devastating earthquake of a magnitude comparable to those centred at New Madrid in 1811–12 cannot be discounted.


The first Lodge in Missouri was created by residents of Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. The charter was issued on November 14, 1807 on a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for the Louisiana Lodge No. 109, to be held in St. Genevieve, Territory of Louisiana with the following officers: Aaron Elliott, Master Andrew Henry, Senior Warden and George Bullitt, Junior Warden.

On September 15, 1808, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a warrant to Meriwether Lewis (leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and the first governor of the Territory of Louisiana), Master, Thomas Fiveash Riddick, Senior Warden, and Rufus Easton, Junior Warden, for Saint Louis Lodge No. 111. This Lodge was constituted November 8, 1808, by Otho Shrader under dispensation dated September 16, 1808.

Later, the Grand Lodge of Tennessee granted charters to three Lodges in Missouri Territory: Missouri Lodge No. 12, in St. Louis, October 8, 1816, Joachim Lodge No. 25, at Herculaneum, October 5, 1819, and St. Charles Lodge No. 28, at St. Charles, October 5, 1819.

In 1820 Unity Lodge was established at Jackson under dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Indiana. It was in existence when the Grand Lodge of Missouri was organized, and was rechartered by it as Unity Lodge No. 6.

On February 22, 1821, representatives from Missouri Lodge No. 12, Joachim Lodge No. 25, and St. Charles Lodge No. 28, assembled in the hall of Missouri Lodge and resolved to organize a grand Lodge for the State of Missouri. The Grand Lodge was organized April 21, 1821, and a constitution and by-laws were adopted.

The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons of the State of Missouri was incorporated by act of the General Assembly of Missouri February 17, 1843. An amendment to this act, repealing its requirement of operation of a college, was approved February 11, 1861. By act of the General Assembly approved February 13, 1864, certain named members of the"Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons were incorporated as "The Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri of Free and Accepted Ancient Masons." By act of the General Assembly approved March 22, 1870, the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Missouri was, among other things, "authorized to own property of any value not exceeding $300,000.00." By decree of the Circuit Court of the City of Saint Louis entered November 18, 1933, the corporate names used in these legislative acts were replaced by "The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Missouri, which is now the correct corporate name of the Grand Lodge, and the powers of the corporation, especially with reference to the Masonic Home and to the holding of property, were greatly amplified.

The present Constitution was adopted May 28, 1866, with a Code of By-Laws, which has been amended through the years. The By-Laws are subject to change by the action of the Grand Lodge members at the annual communication (meeting) of the Grand Lodge.

The Grand Lodge operated Masonic College in Lexington, Missouri during the middle part of the 19th century.

President Harry Truman was a prominent Missouri mason his apron is on display at the Grand Lodge.

Author Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) affiliated with Polar Star Lodge Number 79 in St. Louis Missouri.


Contents

Conference affiliations Edit

  • Independent (1890–1892) (1892–1897)
  • Independent (1898–1906) (1907–1995)
    • MVIAA 1907–1964, unofficially called Big Six 1928–1947, Big Seven 1947–1957 and Big Eight 1957–1963

    The Missouri Tigers have 15 conference championships and 5 conference division titles. [5]

    National championships Edit

    The Tigers were selected as national champions by NCAA-designated major selectors in both the 1960 and 2007 seasons. [6] [7] [8] [9] Neither championship is claimed by the school.

    Season Coach Selectors Record
    1960 Dan Devine Poling System 11–0†
    2007 Gary Pinkel Anderson & Hester 12–2

    † The 1960 record was officially recorded as 10–1, but was later changed to 11–0 due to Kansas' subsequent forfeit. [10]

    Conference championships Edit

    Missouri has won 15 conference championships

    Year Conference Coach Overall Record Conference Record
    1893† WIUFA H.O. Robinson 4–3 2–1
    1894† 4–3 2–1
    1895† C.D. Bliss 7–1 2–1
    1909 Big Eight William Roper 7–0–1 4–0–1
    1913 Chester Brewer 7–1 4–0
    1919 John F. Miller 5–1–2 4–0–1
    1924 Gwinn Henry 7–2 5–1
    1925 6–1–1 5–1
    1927 7–2 5–1
    1939 Don Faurot 8–2 5–0
    1941 8–2 5–0
    1942 8–3–1 4–0–1
    1945 Chauncey Simpson 6–4 5–0
    1960‡ Dan Devine 11–0 7–0
    1969† 9–2 6–1

    † Co-champions
    ‡ The 1960 Big Eight title was retroactively awarded after a loss to Kansas was reversed due to Kansas' use of a player who was later ruled to be ineligible. [11] [12]

    Division championships Edit

    The Tigers were previously members of the Big 12 North division between its inception in 1996 and the dissolution of conference divisions within the Big 12 in 2011. The Tigers joined the SEC as members of the SEC East starting in 2012. Missouri has won 5 division championships.

    Season Division Opponent CG Result
    2007† Big 12 North Oklahoma L 17–38
    2008† Oklahoma L 21–62
    2010† N/A lost tiebreaker to Nebraska
    2013 SEC East Auburn L 42–59
    2014 Alabama L 13–42

    Missouri has appeared in 33 bowl games, including 10 major bowl appearances: 4 Orange Bowls, 3 Cotton Bowls, 2 Sugar Bowls, and 1 Fiesta Bowl, with an all-time bowl record of 15–18. [13]

    Missouri's entire bowl history is shown in the table below. [14]

    Season Coach Bowl Opponent Result
    1924 Gwinn Henry Los Angeles Christmas Festival USC L 7–20
    1939 Don Faurot Orange Bowl Georgia Tech L 7–21
    1941 Don Faurot Sugar Bowl Fordham L 0–2
    1945 Chauncey Simpson Cotton Bowl Classic Texas L 27–40
    1948 Don Faurot Gator Bowl Clemson L 23–24
    1949 Don Faurot Gator Bowl Maryland L 7–20
    1959 Dan Devine Orange Bowl Georgia L 0–14
    1960 Dan Devine Orange Bowl Navy W 21–14
    1962 Dan Devine Bluebonnet Bowl Georgia Tech W 14–10
    1965 Dan Devine Sugar Bowl Florida W 20–18
    1968 Dan Devine Gator Bowl Alabama W 35–10
    1969 Dan Devine Orange Bowl Penn State L 3–10
    1972 Al Onofrio Fiesta Bowl Arizona State L 35–49
    1973 Al Onofrio Sun Bowl Auburn W 34–17
    1978 Warren Powers Liberty Bowl LSU W 20–15
    1979 Warren Powers Hall of Fame Classic South Carolina W 24–14
    1980 Warren Powers Liberty Bowl Purdue L 25–28
    1981 Warren Powers Tangerine Bowl Southern Miss W 19–17
    1983 Warren Powers Holiday Bowl BYU L 17–21
    1997 Larry Smith Holiday Bowl Colorado State L 24–35
    1998 Larry Smith Insight.com Bowl West Virginia W 34–31
    2003 Gary Pinkel Independence Bowl Arkansas L 14–27
    2005 Gary Pinkel Independence Bowl South Carolina W 38–31
    2006 Gary Pinkel Sun Bowl Oregon State L 38–39
    2007 Gary Pinkel Cotton Bowl Classic Arkansas W 38–7
    2008 Gary Pinkel Alamo Bowl Northwestern W 30–23 OT
    2009 Gary Pinkel Texas Bowl Navy L 13–35
    2010 Gary Pinkel Insight Bowl Iowa L 24–27
    2011 Gary Pinkel Independence Bowl North Carolina W 41–24
    2013 Gary Pinkel Cotton Bowl Classic Oklahoma State W 41–31
    2014 Gary Pinkel Citrus Bowl Minnesota W 33–17
    2017 Barry Odom Texas Bowl Texas L 33–16
    2018 Barry Odom Liberty Bowl Oklahoma State L 33–38

    Arkansas Edit

    Missouri leads the series Arkansas 9-3 through the 2020 season. [15]

    Kansas Edit

    Missouri leads the series with Kansas 57–54–9 through the 2020 season. [16]

    Illinois Edit

    Missouri leads the series with Illinois 17–7 through the 2020 season. [17]

    Iowa State Edit

    Missouri leads the series with Iowa State 61–34–9 through the 2020 season. [18]

    Nebraska Edit

    Nebraska leads the series 65–36–3 through the 2020 season. [19]

    Oklahoma Edit

    Oklahoma leads the series 67–24–5 through the 2020 season. [20]

    • Amos Alonzo Stagg Award – For Contributions to Football
    • Walter Camp Coach of the Year Award
    • Mosi Tatupu Award – Best Special Teams Player
    • John Mackey Award – Best Tight End

    All-Americans Edit

    Missouri has 36 first-team All-American selections as of 2017, 13 of whom were consensus selections. [21] : 121–126

      , T 1925 , QB 1939 ,† C 1941 , RB 1942 , DE 1955 ,† DE 1960 , T 1961
  • Conrad Hitchler, DE 1962 ,† DB 1965 , OT 1965 , OT 1967 ,† DB 1968
    • , OG 1969 , C 1973
    • John Moseley, DB 1973 , WR 1975 , OT 1976 ,† TE 1978 , DB 1980 , C 1981 , DT 1981 , OT 1983 ,† OT 1986
    • Devin West, TB 1998
      ,† C 1999 , DE 2000 ,† TE 2007 ,† AP 2007 & 2008 ,† TE 2008 , WR 2009
    • Grant Ressel, K 2009 ,† TE 2010 ,† DE 2013 ,† DE 2014 , ST 2014 , LB 2015

    Missouri has retired six jersey numbers representing seven players as of 2017. [21] : 119–120

    No. Name Position Career
    23 Johnny Roland HB 1962, 1964–65
    Roger Wehrli CB 1966–68
    27 Brock Olivo RB 1994–97
    37 Bob Steuber E/HB 1940–43
    42 Darold Jenkins C 1939–41
    44 Paul Christman HB 1938–40
    83 Kellen Winslow TE 1975–78

    College Football Hall of Fame Edit

    Missouri has 11 inductees into the College Football Hall of Fame. [22]

    Player Position Induction
    Paul Christman QB 1956
    Don Faurot Coach 1961
    Bob Steuber HB 1971
    Jim Phelan Coach 1973
    Ed Travis T 1974
    Darold Jenkins C 1976
    Frank Broyles Coach 1983
    Dan Devine Coach 1985
    Johnny Roland HB 1998
    Kellen Winslow TE 2002
    Roger Wehrli CB 2003

    Pro Football Hall of Fame Edit

    Two Missouri players have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame: [23]

    Player Position Induction
    Kellen Winslow TE 1995
    Roger Wehrli CB 2007

    Truman the Tiger was introduced as the school's mascot against the Utah State Aggies in 1986, receiving his name from former president Harry S Truman. Truman has been named the "Nation's Best Mascot" three times since 1986, most recently in 2014. [24]

    The NCAA [25] as well as Jeopardy! and Trivial Pursuit [26] recognize the University of Missouri as the birthplace of Homecoming, an event which became a national tradition in college football. The history of the University of Missouri Homecoming can be traced back to the 1911 Kansas vs. Missouri football game, when the Missouri Tigers faced off against the Kansas Jayhawks in the first installment of the Border War rivalry series. [27] [28]

    Intra-division opponents Edit

    Missouri plays the other six SEC East opponents once per season. [29]

    Even Numbered Years Odd Number Years
    at Tennessee vs Tennessee
    vs Georgia at Georgia
    at Florida vs Florida
    vs Vanderbilt at Vanderbilt
    at South Carolina vs South Carolina
    vs Kentucky at Kentucky

    Non-division opponents Edit

    Missouri plays Arkansas as a permanent non-division opponent annually and rotates around the West division among the other six schools. [30]


    Watch the video: Morocco - Mzora Stone CircleMound Tomb Of Giant Antaeus (May 2022).