From the invention of the wheel in 3500 BC to the advent of the automobile at the end of the 19th century, six inventions revolutionized land transportation and made extraordinary contributions to agricultural development, industry and tourism of our societies. Above all, these inventions brought about profound social changes, especially in the relationship of individuals to space.
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Saint Francis of Assisi was the founder of the Order of Friars Minor and a leading figure of the 13th century. Canonized in 1228, he was proclaimed patron saint of environmentalists by John Paul II in 1980. In 2013, Pope Francis chose him as an explicit reference after his election to begin his pontificate.
It would be reductive and simplistic to try to draw the typical portrait of the Roman woman. Indeed, if history teaches us one thing well, it is that there is not the Man and the Woman, but men and women. History is conjugated in the plural. Over such a long period, beginning in 753 BC.
Recent research places women as subjects and actresses of history, active in all areas of public life. Confined by the dominant ideology that wants them to be wives, mothers and housewives, women are indeed, whether they like it or not, involved in all the developments of French society over the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Battle of Gettysburg, which took place July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is considered the turning point of the Civil War (1861-1865). The northerners won a costly but decisive victory on the battlefield over the southerners, who emerged from it durably weakened and could never resume the offensive.
In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Palace of Versailles required considerable restoration work. After the tragic death of the curator Charles Mauricheau-Beaupré and among the crowd of applicants for this sought-after post, Gérald Van Der Kemp stood out, becoming for twenty-seven years The Chief Curator of Versailles.
Riquewihr, an ancient medieval city, is a small town located between the Vosges and Alsace, in the heart of the vineyard, classified among the "most beautiful villages in France". Flowered in summer with the traditional geranium, it is adorned with its decorations during the Christmas period to welcome two million annual visitors.
Everyone knows the Caisse d´Epargne and its livret A. Savings banks appeared in the early 19th century when some business circles realized the limits of economic liberalism. The first establishment opened its doors at 19 rue du Louvre in Paris, in a mansion that nowadays retains a beautiful council room, a sculpted facade and door tops bearing the arms of the first owner.
Thomas Edward Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia was a British officer and writer, who organized the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Among the works written by Lawrence of Arabia, the Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926) is considered a major work of British literature, the dimension of which goes beyond the mere account of his adventures and his involvement in the Arab revolt.
As a major strategic objective, official recognition of the Confederate States of America by European powers had been sought from the very earliest days of the new nation's existence. In February 1861, a delegation had been created for this purpose, then sent to Europe.
Very deadly episode, the Battle of the Somme (July 1 - November 18, 1916) is a pivotal moment in the British engagement in the First World War. This first major Franco-British combined offensive, under the command of General Foch and Douglas Haig, did not, however, (contrary to what the General Staff expected) lead to the advance of Allied troops on the Western Front.
1942: The Germans invade the & 34; free zone & 34; in reaction to the Allied landing in North Africa. 1630: Fool's Day. Following a conflict between Richelieu and the queen mother Marie de Medicis over the Spanish question, Louis XIII dismisses his mother from power and confirms the cardinal in office.
The famous liner Titanic sank on April 14, 1912 and carried with it the wonders and the symbol of the art of living of the late 19th century. The fashion at that time was to walk, to appear, to travel, to go to the New World, and these ships were designed to serve a privileged clientele.
Sur le théâtre d’opérations de l’Ouest – autrement dit, de la zone comprise entre les Appalaches et le Mississippi – rien ne laissait présager que la stratégie de l’Union, prudente voire précautionneuse, allait connaître d’aussi fulgurants succès dès les premiers mois de l’année 1862. Et encore moins que ce serait un ancien officier démissionnaire, devenu alcoolique après avoir raté sa reconversion dans le civil, qui allait en être le principal maître d’œuvre.
1960: Kennedy is elected President of the United States. 1942: Allied landing in North Africa, under the command of Eisenhower. 1941: The Germans begin the siege of Leningrad, which they will not manage to take. 1620: Battle of the White Mountain, Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg annexed Bohemia.
The French campaign of 1814 is generally considered by enthusiasts of the period to be one of the most fantastic. L& 39;enchainement de victoires dans un contexte qui semble pourtant désespéré en fait en tout cas l& 39;un des épisodes les plus tragiques de l& 39;épopée impériale. Après les échecs en Russie et en Allemagne, la Grande Armée est forcée de se battre sur son propre territoire pour repousser les forces coalisées largement supérieures en nombre qui affluent sur toutes les frontières.
As early as 1944, Free France and De Gaulle began to think about the social and societal reforms that would have to be put in place once peace returned. The right to vote of women in France is a highly symbolic and long overdue measure. For almost a century, French women have indeed been excluded from universal suffrage, and France will be one of the last European countries to remedy this anomaly.
In a speech given by John Paul II during the Day of Forgiveness in the Holy Year 2000: "We cannot fail to recognize the infidelities to the Gospel that some of our brethren have committed, especially in during the second millennium. Let us ask forgiveness for the divisions that have arisen among Christians, for the violence that some of them have resorted to in service to the truth, and for the attitudes of mistrust and hostility sometimes adopted in the face of the truth. regard for the faithful of other religions ”.
If access to running water and personal hygiene were a major concern in the ancient Roman world, it was quite different in the Middle Ages. Likewise, if the word pollution did not exist in medieval vocabulary, surprising as it seems, it would have been appropriate.
At the end of the 9th century, the kingdom of West Francia was plagued by Viking raids. The Carolingian power then in full decay forced the Frankish nobility to fight by their own means against these Danish hordes going up with their drakkars the rivers. In her historical novel, Joëlle Delacroix attempts to tell us about the most famous of the episodes of this relatively unknown period: the siege of Paris by the Vikings.
Gudfrid is a small landowner living in Denmark, east of Ribe. Knut is Swedish; he is a jarl - a small lord - owning a large estate near Birka. Through this book, the authors - Jeremy Dardenne, Yann Kervran - and the Compagnie du Nord invite us to follow the life of two Scandinavian families and in particular their eldest sons, in the Viking era.